Posts Tagged ‘Albert Einstein’

Vintage History Photo Essay

In History, images on January 31, 2014 at 20:10

I have come across a site where I found some interesting photos.

These  are photos from history are quite captivating.

Einstein's Desk

Einstein‘s Desk the day after his death April 18,1955

Map 1689

World Map 1689


Ground above where Hitler was burnt

The Ground below which Hitler was burnt in the Bunker 67 years ago


Teenager who Flew Cessna

A teenager flew a Cessna into Red Square illegally 1987, he was arrested



Helmets of the World War of different Nations


Death in World war

World War Deaths Note India‘s

Forecast 1962

Forecast of 2012 New York in 1962






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Universe Illusion A Hologram Physicists Meet Adi Sankara

In Astrophysics, Hinduism on December 12, 2013 at 09:37

Brahma satyam jagat mithya, jivo brahmaiva naparah—”Brahman is the only truth, the world is unreal, and there is ultimately no difference between Brahman and individual self’-Adi Sankara in Viveka Chudamani

Declared Adi Sankara, the greatest exponent of non Dualism or Advaita,

Knowledge is relative,There are two kinds of Knowledge.

One is Para Vidya which id Eternal and another is Apara Vidya, that is transitory, that is of this temporal world.

From the Absolute stand point the knowledge we have here in this world, including Science et al is only Real till Real Knowledge dawns.

Then it becomes Illusory.

So the word is real and Unreal or Illusion , both at the same time.

Hinduism speaks of fourteen levels of existence.

Eleven have been proved theoretically by Quantum Physics.

Please read my post filed under Indian Philosophy, Hinduism, Time and Astrophysics Physics.

Scroll down for Videos.

Now Physicists have come with the same conclusion from a different angle.

‘Ekam Sath, Vipra Bahuta Vidanti’ Truth is One , People speak of It in many ways’

A team of physicists has provided some of the clearest evidence yet that our Universe could be just one big projection.

In 1997, theoretical physicist Juan Maldacena proposed that an audacious model of the Universe in which gravity arises from infinitesimally thin, vibrating strings could be reinterpreted in terms of well-established physics. The mathematically intricate world of strings, which exist in nine dimensions of space plus one of time, would be merely a hologram: the real action would play out in a simpler, flatter cosmos where there is no gravity.

Maldacena’s idea thrilled physicists because it offered a way to put the popular but still unproven theory of strings on solid footing — and because it solved apparent inconsistencies between quantum physics and Einstein’s theory of gravity. It provided physicists with a mathematical Rosetta stone, a ‘duality’, that allowed them to translate back and forth between the two languages, and solve problems in one model that seemed intractable in the other and vice versa. But although the validity of Maldacena’s ideas has pretty much been taken for granted ever since, a rigorous proof has been elusive.

In two papers posted on the arXiv repository, Yoshifumi Hyakutake of Ibaraki University in Japan and his colleagues now provide, if not an actual proof, at least compelling evidence that Maldacena’s conjecture is true.

In one paper, Hyakutake computes the internal energy of a black hole, the position of its event horizon (the boundary between the black hole and the rest of the Universe), its entropy and other properties based on the predictions of string theory as well as the effects of so-called virtual particles that continuously pop into and out of existence. In the other, he and his collaborators calculate the internal energy of the corresponding lower-dimensional cosmos with no gravity. The two computer calculations match.

“It seems to be a correct computation,” says Maldacena, who is now at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey and who did not contribute to the team’s work.”




Read another article at the Link below.



Top Mistakes Uncertainty Thy Name Is Science

In Science on September 26, 2013 at 09:39

Science, the protagonists often claim , is the authority on everything and what it says is the truth .

if so, why there has been so many revisions and in many a case total negation and repudiation of what has been theorized earlier.

The operative word is ‘theory’.

Science, in my view, is just that, nothing more.

List of mistakes by Science/Scientists(even this likely to change as what is said to incorrect may be called as correct later).

Climate Errors by Science.

Climate Errors by Science.Leaked report reveals the world has warmed at quarter the rate claimed by IPCC in 2007 Scientists accept their computers may have exaggerated Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2420783/Worlds-climate-scientists-confess-Global-warming-just-QUARTER-thought–computers-got-effects-greenhouse-gases-wrong.html#ixzz2fy5zRXlQ Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Seth Borenstein, the Associated Press‘s science correspondent, has given us a fine barometer by which to measure the scientific certainty that humans are heating the planet. He reports that the world’s climatologists are now gearing up to officially proclaim that they are 95 percent certain that humans are to blame for global warming.

That 5 percent gap may seem large. It is not. In science, nothing is 100 percent sure—not even the law of gravity.

According to Borenstein, here are a few things that scientists are just as or less certain of than climate change:

  • that cigarettes kill
  • the age of the universe
  • that vitamins make you healthy
  • that dioxin in Superfund sites is dangerous

Here are a couple I’ll add myself. Scientists are more certain that humans are causing climate change than:


The Periodic Table, The Bible of Chemistry.

We like to think of the periodic table as immutable. It isn’t – atoms don’t always weigh the same, says Celeste Biever.

No such thing as Reptiles.

The traditional group Reptilia things like lizards, crocodiles, snakes, tortoises plus many extinct groups – is not a true clade, says Graham Lawton.

Nuclear Fission Confusion.

We’ve built the bomb. We’ve built reactors. But the whole enterprise of nuclear fission is based on a misunderstanding.

Chemistry a confusion.

Chemistry is a much fuzzier business than we thought.

Gene is not a Gene.

What defines life’s building blocks? It depends who you ask, says Michael Le Page.


Ask a taxonomist to estimate Earth’s total inventory of species, and they’ll probably say 30 million. That is almost certainly a huge overestimate, saysKate Douglas.


Whatever undergraduate physicists are told, magnetic poles do indeed enjoy the single life, says Richard Webb.


Albert Einstein’s towering reputation is only enhanced by his self-styled biggest blunder. It might not have been a mistake after all, says Richard Webb.




The Religious Are Less Intelligent, Really?

In Religion, Science on August 14, 2013 at 10:18

I received a Link from my son-in-law a Link from the Independent that those who are religious are less intelligent, marked specially for me.

Scientists who believe in God.

Nobel Laureates who believe in God.

My son contributed to this by declaring ,’Blog Expected”


Here it is.

Einstein Quote On Religion and Science.

Einstein Quote On Religion and Science.

Let Science define what Intelligence is first.

It might also of  interest to know what the basis is for  Axioms ,.

Those are assumptions of Science that can not be questioned.

They give it a fancy name for it,

‘Self Evident’

If science is perfect and the end of all, why so frequently it changes its Theories?

So far as information goes, the Scientists have been rushing in ships, planes the moment a Solar eclipse is announced, with a pompous statement  that the investigation would solve many mysteries of the Sun and enhance our knowledge of the Sun.

Yet the information about the Sun is the same as it was .when I was in High School, in the early sixties.

The Suns is a Star.

It is hot.

Its core is hotter.

It erupts periodically emitting Solar Flares.

The Sun exerts its Gravity to keep earth in i s orbit.

The Sun will die in about a Million years.

That’s all.

Now the people who laid the foundation of science are fools, less intelligent.

The following idiots were Religious.

Those who know Science and Philosophy are aware that most Philosophers and Scientists were Religious and believers in God.

Example, Rene Descartes,the Founder of Calculus and Trigonometry.

Spinoza, the man who gave Spinoza’s Theorem.

Leibniz of Leibniz Theorem,

Emmanuel Kant,Giant in Mathematics and Philosophy.

Albert Einstein, Theory of Relativity,

Thomas Babington Macaulay, the man who is reported to have recorded a Highest IQ.

Creative Giants like Shakespeare, Milton,William Wordsworth,

Great Military strategists Alexander the Great,Napoleon Bonaparte.

I am deliberately omitting fools like Sri Adi Shankaracharya,Varahamihira, Arya Bhatta,Charaka,Vararuchi, Susrutha,Kalidasa,Patanjali …….

It is easy for a fool to deny.

It requires wisdom to prove.

It is easier to deny facts by saying I have not seen it.

But  one believes in a great Grand Father whom one has not seen.

They have not defined what Religion is in this Study. but they define Religiosity.

Seems that they have taken Christianity as the basis.

And what are  the representative sample of Culture,Ethnicity parameters  that have been taken into account?

Einstein On God.

Einstein On God.

A piece of University of Rochester analysis, led by Professor Miron Zuckerman, found “a reliable negative relation between intelligence and religiosity” in 53 out of 63 studies.

According to the study entitled, ‘The Relation Between Intelligence and Religiosity: A Meta-Analysis and Some Proposed Explanations’, published in the ‘Personality and Social Psychology Review‘, even during early years the more intelligent a child is the more likely it would be to turn away from religion.

In old age above average intelligence people are less likely to believe, the researchers also found.

One of the studies used in Zuckerman’s paper was a life-long analysis of the beliefs of 1,500 gifted children with with IQs over 135.

The study began in 1921 and continues today. Even in extreme old age the subjects had much lower levels of religious belief than the average population.

The review, which is the first systematic meta-analysis of the 63 studies conducted in between 1928 and 2012, showed that of the 63 studies, 53 showed a negative correlation between intelligence and religiosity, while 10 showed a positive one.

Only two studies showed significant positive correlations and significant negative correlations were seen in a total of 35 studies.

Religiosity is defined by the psychologists as involvement in some (or all) facets of religion.



List of Scientists who believed in God.

  1. Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543)
    Copernicus was the Polish astronomer who put forward the first mathematically based system of planets going around the sun. He attended various European universities, and became a Canon in the Catholic church in 1497. His new system was actually first presented in the Vatican gardens in 1533 before Pope Clement VII who approved, and urged Copernicus to publish it around this time. Copernicus was never under any threat of religious persecution – and was urged to publish both by Catholic Bishop Guise, Cardinal Schonberg, and the Protestant Professor George Rheticus. Copernicus referred sometimes to God in his works, and did not see his system as in conflict with the Bible.
  2. Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1627)
    Bacon was a philosopher who is known for establishing the scientific method of inquiry based on experimentation and inductive reasoning. In De Interpretatione Naturae Prooemium, Bacon established his goals as being the discovery of truth, service to his country, and service to the church. Although his work was based upon experimentation and reasoning, he rejected atheism as being the result of insufficient depth of philosophy, stating, “It is true, that a little philosophy inclineth man’s mind to atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men’s minds about to religion; for while the mind of man looketh upon second causes scattered, it may sometimes rest in them, and go no further; but when it beholdeth the chain of them confederate, and linked together, it must needs fly to Providence and Deity.” (Of Atheism)
  3. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
    Kepler was a brilliant mathematician and astronomer. He did early work on light, and established the laws of planetary motion about the sun. He also came close to reaching the Newtonian concept of universal gravity – well before Newton was born! His introduction of the idea of force in astronomy changed it radically in a modern direction. Kepler was an extremely sincere and pious Lutheran, whose works on astronomy contain writings about how space and the heavenly bodies represent the Trinity. Kepler suffered no persecution for his open avowal of the sun-centered system, and, indeed, was allowed as a Protestant to stay in Catholic Graz as a Professor (1595-1600) when other Protestants had been expelled!
  4. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
    Galileo is often remembered for his conflict with the Roman Catholic Church. His controversial work on the solar system was published in 1633. It had no proofs of a sun-centered system (Galileo’s telescope discoveries did not indicate a moving earth) and his one “proof” based upon the tides was invalid. It ignored the correct elliptical orbits of planets published twenty five years earlier by Kepler. Since his work finished by putting the Pope’s favorite argument in the mouth of the simpleton in the dialogue, the Pope (an old friend of Galileo’s) was very offended. After the “trial” and being forbidden to teach the sun-centered system, Galileo did his most useful theoretical work, which was on dynamics. Galileo expressly said that the Bible cannot err, and saw his system as an alternate interpretation of the biblical texts.
  5. Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
    Descartes was a French mathematician, scientist and philosopher who has been called the father of modern philosophy. His school studies made him dissatisfied with previous philosophy: He had a deep religious faith as a Roman Catholic, which he retained to his dying day, along with a resolute, passionate desire to discover the truth. At the age of 24 he had a dream, and felt the vocational call to seek to bring knowledge together in one system of thought. His system began by asking what could be known if all else were doubted – suggesting the famous “I think therefore I am”. Actually, it is often forgotten that the next step for Descartes was to establish the near certainty of the existence of God – for only if God both exists and would not want us to be deceived by our experiences – can we trust our senses and logical thought processes. God is, therefore, central to his whole philosophy. What he really wanted to see was that his philosophy be adopted as standard Roman Catholic teaching. Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon (1561-1626) are generally regarded as the key figures in the development of scientific methodology. Both had systems in which God was important, and both seem more devout than the average for their era.
  6. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
    Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and theologian. In mathematics, he published a treatise on the subject of projective geometry and established the foundation for probability theory. Pascal invented a mechanical calculator, and established the principles of vacuums and the pressure of air. He was raised a Roman Catholic, but in 1654 had a religious vision of God, which turned the direction of his study from science to theology. Pascal began publishing a theological work,Lettres provinciales, in 1656. His most influential theological work, the Pensées (“Thoughts”), was a defense of Christianity, which was published after his death. The most famous concept from Pensées was Pascal’s Wager. Pascal’s last words were, “May God never abandon me.”
  7. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
    In optics, mechanics, and mathematics, Newton was a figure of undisputed genius and innovation. In all his science (including chemistry) he saw mathematics and numbers as central. What is less well known is that he was devoutly religious and saw numbers as involved in understanding God’s plan for history from the Bible. He did a considerable work on biblical numerology, and, though aspects of his beliefs were not orthodox, he thought theology was very important. In his system of physics, God was essential to the nature and absoluteness of space. In Principia he stated, “The most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.”
  8. Robert Boyle (1791-1867)
    One of the founders and key early members of the Royal Society, Boyle gave his name to “Boyle’s Law” for gases, and also wrote an important work on chemistry. Encyclopedia Britannica says of him: “By his will he endowed a series of Boyle lectures, or sermons, which still continue, ‘for proving the Christian religion against notorious infidels…’ As a devout Protestant, Boyle took a special interest in promoting the Christian religion abroad, giving money to translate and publish the New Testament into Irish and Turkish. In 1690 he developed his theological views in The Christian Virtuoso, which he wrote to show that the study of nature was a central religious duty.” Boyle wrote against atheists in his day (the notion that atheism is a modern invention is a myth), and was clearly much more devoutly Christian than the average in his era.
  9. Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
    Michael Faraday was the son of a blacksmith who became one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century. His work on electricity and magnetism not only revolutionized physics, but led to much of our lifestyles today, which depends on them (including computers and telephone lines and, so, web sites). Faraday was a devoutly Christian member of the Sandemanians, which significantly influenced him and strongly affected the way in which he approached and interpreted nature. Originating from Presbyterians, the Sandemanians rejected the idea of state churches, and tried to go back to a New Testament type of Christianity.
  10. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
    Mendel was the first to lay the mathematical foundations of genetics, in what came to be called “Mendelianism”. He began his research in 1856 (three years before Darwin published his Origin of Species) in the garden of the Monastery in which he was a monk. Mendel was elected Abbot of his Monastery in 1868. His work remained comparatively unknown until the turn of the century, when a new generation of botanists began finding similar results and “rediscovered” him (though their ideas were not identical to his). An interesting point is that the 1860′s was notable for formation of the X-Club, which was dedicated to lessening religious influences and propagating an image of “conflict” between science and religion. One sympathizer was Darwin’s cousin Francis Galton, whose scientific interest was in genetics (a proponent of eugenics – selective breeding among humans to “improve” the stock). He was writing how the “priestly mind” was not conducive to science while, at around the same time, an Austrian monk was making the breakthrough in genetics. The rediscovery of the work of Mendel came too late to affect Galton’s contribution.
  11. William Thomson Kelvin (1824-1907)
    Kelvin was foremost among the small group of British scientists who helped to lay the foundations of modern physics. His work covered many areas of physics, and he was said to have more letters after his name than anyone else in the Commonwealth, since he received numerous honorary degrees from European Universities, which recognized the value of his work. He was a very committed Christian, who was certainly more religious than the average for his era. Interestingly, his fellow physicists George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) were also men of deep Christian commitment, in an era when many were nominal, apathetic, or anti-Christian. The Encyclopedia Britannica says “Maxwell is regarded by most modern physicists as the scientist of the 19th century who had the greatest influence on 20th century physics; he is ranked with Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein for the fundamental nature of his contributions.” Lord Kelvin was anOld Earth creationist, who estimated the Earth’s age to be somewhere between 20 million and 100 million years, with an upper limit at 500 million years based on cooling rates (a low estimate due to his lack of knowledge about radiogenic heating).
  12. Max Planck (1858-1947)
    Planck made many contributions to physics, but is best known for quantum theory, which revolutionized our understanding of the atomic and sub-atomic worlds. In his 1937 lecture “Religion and Naturwissenschaft,” Planck expressed the view that God is everywhere present, and held that “the holiness of the unintelligible Godhead is conveyed by the holiness of symbols.” Atheists, he thought, attach too much importance to what are merely symbols. Planck was a churchwarden from 1920 until his death, and believed in an almighty, all-knowing, beneficent God (though not necessarily a personal one). Both science and religion wage a “tireless battle against skepticism and dogmatism, against unbelief and superstition” with the goal “toward God!”

Scientists who were Atheists.

  • Ernst Abbe (1840–1905): German physicist, optometrist, entrepreneur, and social reformer. Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modernoptics. Abbe developed numerous optical instruments. He was a co-owner of Carl Zeiss AG, a German manufacturer of research microscopes, astronomical telescopes, planetariums and other optical systems.[1]
  • Zhores Alferov (1930–): Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He is an inventor of the heterotransistor and the winner of 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics.[2][3]
  • Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995): Swedish electrical engineer and plasma physicist. He received the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on magnetohydrodynamics(MHD). He is best known for describing the class of MHD waves now known as Alfvén waves.[4][5][6]
  • Jim Al-Khalili (1962–): Iraqi-born British theoretical physicist, author and science communicator. He is professor of Theoretical Physics and Chair in the Public Engagement in Science at the University of Surrey.[7]
  • I leave it to the readers to compare the the Scientists and those who believed in God.



Thanks Vikram,Anand.

* I have received quite a few comments, most of them to my email personally.

In general, people seem to agree.

Probably they feel it is embarrassing to them to state this in Public,as this, I feel unnecessarily.

Those who disagree, in email and in the comments, do not address the points I have raised in the post.

One comment says that

Science is a process, not a body of knowledge. Theories change because scientists continue to learn more about nature. Religion is the opposite of science. Religion does not require evidence.

Of course, many scientists believe in God. That does not prove that God exists; it just means that scientists are human and look to faith when they reach the limits of their knowledge.”

I am replying this in the Post rather than in the Comments to enable readers to respond to the thought.

That ‘Science is not a body of Knowledge’ is new to me.

Precisely what I am driving at.

Science is an attempt to understand with a system.

Philosophy is called the Mother of all Sciences as it examines the fundamentals of Science.

Religion is  not the opposite of Science.

It supplements Science,especially Indian Philosophy.

Religion provides Proof.

We do not follow the methodology while we do it for Science.

Religion is the understanding of the self and the Universe with what one possesses ,which Science does not attempt to examine.

Gravity Assumptions Galore.

In Astrophysics, Society on December 31, 2012 at 11:48

Gravity is the Force that appears to attract Physical Bodies towards each other’.

Let’s see how much we know about it.


Note the Definition, ‘appears to attract’ – We are not sure.


Einstein’s Views -’Theory of  General Relativity‘ as applied to Gravity.


Space and Time , Spacetime condition Gravity.


General relativity, or the general theory of relativity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916[1] and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalises special relativity and Newton’s law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations.”…


Some predictions of general relativity differ significantly from those of classical physics, especially concerning the passage of time, the geometry of space, the motion of bodies in free fall, and the propagation of light. Examples of such differences include gravitational time dilationgravitational lensing, the gravitational redshift of light, and the gravitational time delay. The predictions of general relativity have been confirmed in all observations and experiments to date. Although general relativity is not the only relativistic theory of gravity, it is the simplest theory that is consistent with experimental data. However, unanswered questions remain, the most fundamental being how general relativity can be reconciled with the laws of quantum physics to produce a complete and self-consistent theory of quantum gravity.




Space is curved(please read my blogs under Astrophysics).


Have we defined Space, Tie?




Consequently Gravitation as influenced by Spacetime,at best, remains a conjecture.


Space time and Gravitation

Two-dimensional analogy of spacetime distortion generated by the mass of an object. Matter changes the geometry of spacetime, this (curved) geometry being interpreted as gravity. White lines do not represent the curvature of space but instead represent the coordinate system imposed on the curved spacetime, which would be rectilinear in a flat spacetime.


Newton on Gravity(theory discared, yet being used in Calculations)


” “I deduced that the forces which keep the planets in their orbs must [be] reciprocally as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve: and thereby compared the force requisite to keep the Moon in her Orb with the force of gravity at the surface of the Earth; and found them answer pretty nearly’…


Although Newton’s theory has been superseded, most modern non-relativistic gravitational calculations are still made using Newton’s theory because it is a much simpler theory to work with than general relativity, and gives sufficiently accurate results for most applications involving sufficiently small masses, speeds and energies.’


Irrespective of the fact whether our Theory is Right or Wrong, Principles of Nature work,so much for Science.


By the way , can some one forward me the exact definition of Nature?


Earth’s Gravity.


a) Earth is ‘assumed’ to be surrounded by its own Gravitational Filed, which exerts an attractive force on all objects. Assuming a spherically symmetrical planet, the strength of this field at any given point is proportional to the planetary body’s mass and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the center of the body….


The fundamental is an Assumption.


Again, ‘ This means that, ignoring air resistance, an object falling freely near the Earth’s surface increases its velocity by 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s or 22 mph) for each second of its descent. Thus, an object starting from rest will attain a velocity of 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s) after one second, 19.62 m/s (64.4 ft/s) after two seconds, and so on, adding 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s) to each resulting velocity. Also, again ignoring air resistance, any and all objects, when dropped from the same height, will hit the ground at the same time.




‘The strength of the gravitational field is numerically equal to the acceleration of objects under its influence, and its value at the Earth’s surface, denoted g, is approximately expressed below as thestandard average.

g = 9.81 m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2′

We want to know Earth’s Gravitation, that is what we want to prove.

Acceleration of Bodies is determined the force of Gravitation.

So when we rely on the Acceleration of Objects under the influence of the Earths’ gravitation , have we not already assumed Earth’s  Gravity?

We also ignore the effect of Electromagnetism and other forces at work,EM being dependent on Gravitation or is the other way around?

The Theory is riddled with Assumptions and leaping to conclusions.



Chinese Scientists have found a way to measure Gravity and it throws Spanner in the works.


‘By conducting six observations of total and annular solar eclipses, as well as Earth tides, a team headed by Tang Keyun, a researcher with the Institute of Geology and Geophysics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), found that the Newtonian Earth tide formula includes a factor related to the propagation of gravity.

“Earth tide” refers to a small change in the Earth’s surface caused by the gravity of the moon and sun.

Based on the data, the team, with the participation of the China Earthquake Administration and the University of the CAS, found that gravitational force released from the sun and gravitational force recorded at ground stations on Earth did not travel at the same speed, with the time difference exactly the same as the time it takes for light to travel from the sun to observation stations on Earth.

[…] By applying the new data to the propagation equation of gravity, the team found that the speed of gravity is about 0.93 to 1.05 times the speed of light with a relative error of about 5 percent, providing the first set of strong evidence showing that gravity travels at the speed of light.”







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