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Archive for the ‘Science’ Category

Speed Of Light =Gravity=Infinity = 0 = Science?

In Science on March 26, 2014 at 09:00

The Speed( I am using this term to enable every one to understand this) is 299,792,458 metres per second,

 

This is equal to the Speed of Gravity.

 

Speed of Light is equal to Speed of Gravity(+ or – 1%)

 

The Speed of Light, according to Newton is Infinite.

 

That is you can not comprehend because there are innumerable Digits,’ it is limitless.

 

Zero can not be comprehended because there is nothing to comprehend.( some say “A positive or negative number when divided by zero is a fraction with the zero as denominator”

 

So in terms of Comprehending Infinity is as comprehensible as Zero is.

 

Therefore Infinity is equal to Zero.

 

Speed of Light is Infinite.

 

Therefore, Speed of Light is equal to Zero.

 

I am aware of the Logical Fallacy of undistributed Middle is present in my argument.

 

So do the Scientist theories!

 

We take Science because it is convenient.

 

We do not question it.

 

Then why not God?

 

* Follow Theory of Relativity, it is more fun .

 

Symbol of Infinity

Infinity symbol

 

Newtonian Gravity.

 

Therefore the theory assumes the speed of gravity to be infinite. This assumption was adequate to account for all phenomena with the observational accuracy of that time. It was not until the 19th century that an anomaly in astronomical observations which could not be reconciled with the Newtonian gravitational model of instantaneous action was noted.

 

Relativity Gravity.

General relativity predicts that gravitational radiation should exist and propagate as a wave at lightspeed: a slowly evolving and weak gravitational field will produce, according to general relativity, effects like those of Newtonian gravitation.

 

Infinity.

Infinity (symbol: ) is an abstract concept describing something without any limit and is relevant in a number of fields, predominantly mathematics and physics. The English word infinity derives from Latin infinitas, meaning “the state of being without finish”, and which can be translated as “unboundedness”, itself calqued from the Greek word apeiros, meaning “endless”

 

The Indian mathematical text Surya Prajnapti (c. 3rd–4th century BCE) classifies all numbers into three sets: enumerable, innumerable, and infinite. Each of these was further subdivided into three orders:

  • Enumerable: lowest, intermediate, and highest
  • Innumerable: nearly innumerable, truly innumerable, and innumerably innumerable
  • Infinite: nearly infinite, truly infinite, infinitely infinite

In the Indian work on the theory of sets, two basic types of infinite numbers are distinguished. On both physical and ontological grounds, a distinction was made between asaṃkhyāta (“countless, innumerable”) and ananta (“endless, unlimited”), between rigidly bounded and loosely bounded infinities.

 

Minecraft can be a great tool for visualizing complicated subjects, such as the speed of light (aka “c”). Using a straight track and simple math, we can see how the universe might be limiting speeds for very fast things, such as light.

The “doors” metaphor is admittedly, imperfect. While they do limit speed outside of “acceleration”, they falsely imply that there is something “in space” that slows things down, which does not appear to be the case at the moment. The actual mechanisms that limit objects to light speed will be the topic for a future video. (Hint: It has to do with time!)

 

Zero.

 

The rules governing the use of zero appeared for the first time in Brahmagupta‘s book Brahmasputha Siddhanta (The Opening of the Universe),[25] written in 628 AD. Here Brahmagupta considers not only zero, but negative numbers, and the algebraic rules for the elementary operations of arithmetic with such numbers. In some instances, his rules differ from the modern standard. Here are the rules of Brahmagupta:[25]

  • The sum of zero and a negative number is negative.
  • The sum of zero and a positive number is positive.
  • The sum of zero and zero is zero.
  • The sum of a positive and a negative is their difference; or, if their absolute values are equal, zero.
  • A positive or negative number when divided by zero is a fraction with the zero as denominator.
  • Zero divided by a negative or positive number is either zero or is expressed as a fraction with zero as numerator and the finite quantity as denominator.
  • Zero divided by zero is zero.

In saying zero divided by zero is zero, Brahmagupta differs from the modern position. Mathematicians normally do not assign a value to this, whereas computers and calculators sometimes assign NaN, which means “not a number.” Moreover, non-zero positive or negative numbers when divided by zero are either assigned no value, or a value of unsigned infinity, positive infinity, or negative infinity.

 

Read my Posts on Time, Astrophysics.Science.

 

Citations.

Zero Wiki

Infinity Wiki

 

 

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Electricity In Hinduism Texts Agashtya Samhita

In Hinduism, Science on November 11, 2013 at 08:33

 

This post is a sequel to Hinduism,Mathematics Calculations and Measurements.

One who reads the Indian Puranas and Ithihasas like Ramayana would find that if a Rishi wants to curse or Bless some one’he/she sprinkles water thrice, taken from His /her Kamandalu, which is made of Copper.(Kamandalu is shaped like a small Teapot,without the Nose/snout)

In The Vedas,one of the most powerful Mantras being recited after the Pooja is performed is The Mantra Pushpa.

It is the worship of Water.

Water,Aapah,is extolled and prayed for Welfare.

Cell , Battery

Battery,Cell

Water is used for all ceremonies,Functions.

Water is used for Purification ceremonies, like marriages,and cleansing the Home after a Death.

Temples in India are closed only between 1 and 4 pm and finally at 1030 pm.

The closing time after Noon is called the Closure after  Uchchi Kala Pooja and the closure after 1030 pm is  Closure afterArtha JamaPooja.

A temple is never closed at other times.

( Also a Temple is not sanctioned to be open after Artha Jama Pooja,after 1030 pm; we now have even Tirupathi Temple being kept open through out the Day during English New Year Day and other important Days,This is wrong ,according to the Sastras)

However the Temples are closed if death occurs in the Street where The Temple is located and it is opened after the body is taken out.

To cleanse the temple Punyahachana is performed with Water.

Temples are closed during the Eclipses,Grahans and they are opened after the Eclipse is over and a Punyahavaachana is performed with Water before opening.

The Sandhyaandana, which is a Daily Duty of the three Varnas, Brahmins ,Kshtriyas, Vaisyas is performed with Water ans the purification of Food is done with Water,Parishachanam.

Why?

I searched and found references about Electricity from the Agasthya Samhita.

Here it is.

Formula for Electric battery in Agastya Samhita an Ancient Hindu text by The ancient text of Agastya Samhita describes the method of making electric battery, and that water can be split into oxygen and hydrogen. Modern battery cell resembles Agastya’s method of generating electricity. For generating electricity, Sage Agastya had used the following material: 1.One earthen pot 2.Copper plate 3.Copper sulphate 4.Wet saw dust 5.Zinc amalgam His text says : “Sansthapya Mrinmaya Patre Tamrapatram Susanskritam Chhadyechhikhigriven Chardrarbhih Kashthpamsubhih. Dastaloshto Nidhatavyah Pardachhaditastah Sanyogajjayte Tejo Mitravarunsangyitam” संस्थाप्य मृण्मये पात्रे ताम्रपत्रं सुसंस्कृतम्‌। छादयेच्छिखिग्रीवेन चार्दाभि: काष्ठापांसुभि:॥ दस्तालोष्टो निधात्वय: पारदाच्छादितस्तत:। संयोगाज्जायते तेजो मित्रावरुणसंज्ञितम्‌॥ Which means, “Place a well-cleaned copper plate in an earthenware vessel. Cover it first by copper sulfate and then by moist sawdust. After that, put a mercury-amalgamated zinc sheet on top of the sawdust to avoid polarization. The contact will produce an energy known by the twin name of Mitra-Varuna. Water will be split by this current into Pranavayu and Udanavayu. A chain of one hundred jars is said to give a very effective force. (p. 422)” When a cell was prepared according to Agastya Samhita and measured, it gives open circuit voltage as 1.138 volts, and short circuit current as 23 mA. Anen Jalbhangosti Prano Daneshu Vayushu Evam Shatanam Kumbhanamsanyogkaryakritsmritah. if we use the power of 100 earthen pots on water, then water will change its form into life-giving oxygen and floating hydrogen. Vayubandhakvastren Nibaddho Yanmastake Udanah Swalaghutve Bibhartyakashayanakam. If hydrogen is contained in an air tight cloth, it can be used in aerodynamics, i.e. it will fly in air. (Today’s Hydrogen Balloon) Process Of Electroplating by Maharshi Agastya in Agastya Sanhita: Excerpt from “Technology of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients” – By David Hatcher Childress “In the temple of Trivandrum, Travancore, the Reverned S. Mateer of the London Protestant Mission saw ‘a great lamp which was lit over one hundred and twenty years ago’, in a deep well in side the temple. ……. On the background of the Agastya Samhita text’s giving precise directions for constructing electrical batteries, this speculation is not extravagant.”

अगस्त्य संहिता में एक सूत्र हैः

संस्थाप्य मृण्मये पात्रे ताम्रपत्रं सुसंस्कृतम्‌।
छादयेच्छिखिग्रीवेन चार्दाभि: काष्ठापांसुभि:॥
दस्तालोष्टो निधात्वय: पारदाच्छादितस्तत:।
संयोगाज्जायते तेजो मित्रावरुणसंज्ञितम्‌॥

अर्थात् एक मिट्टी का बर्तन लें, उसमें अच्छी प्रकार से साफ किया गया ताम्रपत्र और शिखिग्रीवा (मोर के गर्दन जैसा पदार्थ अर्थात् कॉपरसल्फेट) डालें। फिर उस बर्तन को लकड़ी के गीले बुरादे से भर दें। उसके बाद लकड़ी के गीले बुरादे के ऊपर पारा से आच्छादित दस्त लोष्ट (mercury-amalgamated zinc sheet) रखे। इस प्रकार दोनों के संयोग से अर्थात् तारों के द्वारा जोड़ने पर मित्रावरुणशक्ति की उत्पत्ति होगी।
यहाँ पर उल्लेखनीय है कि यह प्रयोग करके भी देखा गया है जिसके परिणामस्वरूप 1.138 वोल्ट तथा 23 mA धारा वाली विद्युत उत्पन्न हुई। स्वदेशी विज्ञान संशोधन संस्था (नागपुर) के द्वारा उसके चौथे वार्षिक सभा में ७ अगस्त, १९९० को इस प्रयोग का प्रदर्शन भी विद्वानों तथा सर्वसाधारण के समक्ष किया गया।
अगस्त्य संहिता में आगे लिखा हैः

अनेन जलभंगोस्ति प्राणो दानेषु वायुषु।
एवं शतानां कुंभानांसंयोगकार्यकृत्स्मृत:॥

अर्थात सौ कुम्भों (अर्थात् उपरोक्त प्रकार से बने तथा श्रृंखला में जोड़े ग! सौ सेलों) की शक्ति का पानी में प्रयोग करने पर पानी अपना रूप बदल कर प्राण वायु (ऑक्सीजन) और उदान वायु (हाइड्रोजन) में परिवर्तित हो जाएगा।
फिर लिखा गया हैः

वायुबन्धकवस्त्रेण निबद्धो यानमस्तके उदान स्वलघुत्वे बिभर्त्याकाशयानकम्‌।
अर्थात् उदान वायु (हाइड्रोजन) को बन्धक वस्त्र (air tight cloth) द्वारा निबद्ध किया जाए तो वह विमान विद्या (aerodynamics) के लिए प्रयुक्त किया जा सकता है।
स्पष्ट है कि यह आज के विद्युत बैटरी का सूत्र (Formula for Electric battery) ही है। साथ ही यह प्राचीन भारत में विमान विद्या होने की भी पुष्टि करता है।

Process Of Electroplating by Maharshi Agastya in Agastya Sanhita:-

“Technology of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients” – By David Hatcher Childress

“In the temple of Trivendrum, Travancore, the Reverned S. Mateer of the London Protestant Mission saw ‘a great lamp which was lit over one hundred and twenty years ago’, in a deep well in side the temple. ……. On the background of the Agastya Samhita text’s giving precise directions for constructing electrical batteries, this speculation is not extravagant.”

आपको यह जानकर आश्चर्य होगा कि आज की अनेक आधुनिक तकनीकों का वर्णन हमारे प्राचीन ग्रंथों में मिलता है। शुक्र नीति के अनुसार आज के इलेक्ट्रोप्लेटिंग के लिए “कृत्रिमस्वर्णरजतलेपः” शब्द का प्रयोग करते हुए इसे “सत्कृति” नाम नाम दिया गया है – “कृत्रिमस्वर्णरजतलेप: सत्कृतिरुच्यते”।

अब यह बताना चाहते हैं कि अगस्त्य संहिता में विद्युत्‌ का उपयोग इलेक्ट्रोप्लेटिंग के लिए करने की विधि दर्शाते हुए निम्न सूत्र मिलता हैः

यवक्षारमयोधानौ सुशक्तजलसन्निधो॥
आच्छादयति तत्ताम्रं स्वर्णेन रजतेन वा।
सुवर्णलिप्तं तत्ताम्रं शातकुंभमिति स्मृतम्‌॥

अर्थात्‌- लोहे के पात्र में रखे गए सुशक्त जल (तेजाब का घोल) का सानिध्य पाते ही यवक्षार (सोने या चांदी का नाइट्रेट) ताम्र को स्वर्ण या रजत से आच्छादित कर देता है। स्वर्ण से लिप्त उस ताम्र को शातकुंभ स्वर्ण कहा जाता है।

References:

https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.459663690792028.1073741856.182221931869540&type=3

http://cpdarshi.wordpress.com/2012/04/28/proof-of-electric-battery-in-agastya-sanhita/

http://mysteriesexplored.wordpress.com/2013/01/12/electricity-in-ancient-india/

Top Mistakes Uncertainty Thy Name Is Science

In Science on September 26, 2013 at 09:39

Science, the protagonists often claim , is the authority on everything and what it says is the truth .

if so, why there has been so many revisions and in many a case total negation and repudiation of what has been theorized earlier.

The operative word is ‘theory’.

Science, in my view, is just that, nothing more.

List of mistakes by Science/Scientists(even this likely to change as what is said to incorrect may be called as correct later).

Climate Errors by Science.

Climate Errors by Science.Leaked report reveals the world has warmed at quarter the rate claimed by IPCC in 2007 Scientists accept their computers may have exaggerated Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2420783/Worlds-climate-scientists-confess-Global-warming-just-QUARTER-thought–computers-got-effects-greenhouse-gases-wrong.html#ixzz2fy5zRXlQ Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Seth Borenstein, the Associated Press‘s science correspondent, has given us a fine barometer by which to measure the scientific certainty that humans are heating the planet. He reports that the world’s climatologists are now gearing up to officially proclaim that they are 95 percent certain that humans are to blame for global warming.

That 5 percent gap may seem large. It is not. In science, nothing is 100 percent sure—not even the law of gravity.

According to Borenstein, here are a few things that scientists are just as or less certain of than climate change:

  • that cigarettes kill
  • the age of the universe
  • that vitamins make you healthy
  • that dioxin in Superfund sites is dangerous

Here are a couple I’ll add myself. Scientists are more certain that humans are causing climate change than:

 

The Periodic Table, The Bible of Chemistry.

We like to think of the periodic table as immutable. It isn’t – atoms don’t always weigh the same, says Celeste Biever.

No such thing as Reptiles.

The traditional group Reptilia things like lizards, crocodiles, snakes, tortoises plus many extinct groups – is not a true clade, says Graham Lawton.

Nuclear Fission Confusion.

We’ve built the bomb. We’ve built reactors. But the whole enterprise of nuclear fission is based on a misunderstanding.

Chemistry a confusion.

Chemistry is a much fuzzier business than we thought.

Gene is not a Gene.

What defines life’s building blocks? It depends who you ask, says Michael Le Page.

Ecology.

Ask a taxonomist to estimate Earth’s total inventory of species, and they’ll probably say 30 million. That is almost certainly a huge overestimate, saysKate Douglas.

Magnetism.

Whatever undergraduate physicists are told, magnetic poles do indeed enjoy the single life, says Richard Webb.

Einstein.

Albert Einstein’s towering reputation is only enhanced by his self-styled biggest blunder. It might not have been a mistake after all, says Richard Webb.

 

http://www.newscientist.com/special/rewriting-the-textbooks

http://motherboard.vice.com/blog/things-scientists-are-less-sure-of-than-climate-change

What Is Certainty ?

In Philosophy, Science on August 20, 2013 at 12:12

I saw a Post on Truth and Beauty.

The Uncertainty Principle.

A quantum mechanics lecture. A man who loves the Universe. The scientific method that clashes with pseudoscience. A secret. A confession… The professor walks through some of the most intriguing concepts of quantum mechanics in order to present a beautiful world made of mysteries and paradoxes. source;http://festival.summerhall.co.uk/event/the-principle-of-uncertainty/

I am providing the link towards  the end of the post.

I have been planning to write on this for some time.

Whenever we talk of certainty what do we mean?

That an event or thing will happen the way we expect it to happen?

Again what is ‘expected to happen?

We expect things to happen indicates that we have seen some things, events followed some events, some experienced by us, some by the others,

And we think the same pattern will follow.

Just  how scientific is this?

I am talking about Science here, because it what people think is the solution for every thing and Science is the club used to beat Philosophy and Religion.

When a religious information , or even a fact is presented, the immediate question, from the people, especially who profess to have a scientific temper(?), is,

How certain are you?

The same question is addressed to Philosophy.

You Talk of Reality God.

The retort is,

Is it certain?

Does it hold good for all times the past,, present and the future.

Philosophy and Religion take this very seriously and replies,

Yes, it holds good for all times and it is Eternal.

I think the answer is not can not be reasoned out for we can not verify, it.

As of now, we know things and events as they are or reported to be ‘were’

Not it ‘will be’

What we know is the Finite and we presume, that since there is some thing Finite, there has to be some thing Infinite.

Because we are conditioned to think, I do not know how, that there

should be a pair of opposite.

True there are pairs of opposites in what we experience in Life, pleasure and Pain,Darkness and Light, Good and Bad,the  list goes on.

But by logic it need not be.

What has happened yesterday need not happen to morrow.

Our mind is programmed to find similarities,categories, uniformity  to make it easier for the Mind to categorize.

It is the mechanism of the Mind.

If we think it is in the outside world, then one has to accept the the Law of Uniformity of Nature and as a consequence must accept the Theory of Causation as well.

Law of Uniformity , at its best can only say that an event had happened, is happening in the present and no more.

Law of Causation can tell you an event is caused by another.

One event may be the Cause for many events and one result may be caused by more than one Cause(event)

There are many sub causes to make a particular Cause to produce one particular effect.

This, I shall deal, in a separate post

These sub or attendant  causes .’ along with the Primary Cause again assumes the law of Causation.

So Causation assumes Uniformity and Uniformity assumes Causation.

This is Logical fallacy. for each assumes the other as proven.

So ‘expecting’ , including the results of scientific experiments , is not logical.

One may say some result is expected, that’s all.

So since our definition of certainty is based on  Expectation, it is equally untenable.

Therefore, certainty is a Myth.

It can not be verified.

Curiously I find definitions on Uncertainty, not on Certainty.

I am providing information  at the end , on this.

This Uncertainty Principle gained recognition after the advent of Quantum Theory.

Here it is:

In 1927 Heisenberg suggested the uncertainty principle, which can be formulated now as follows:

If one tries to describe the dynamical state of a quantum particle by methods of classical mechanics, then precision of such description is limited in principle. The classical state of the particle turns out to be badly defined.

In 2005 the certainty principle was suggested, which is formulated as follows:

If one describes the dynamical state of a quantum particle (system) by methods of quantum mechanics, then the quantum state of the particle (system) turns out to be well defined. This certainty of the quantum dynamical state means that “small” space-time transformations can not substantially change the quantum state.

Both principles are not just some misty philosophy about uncertainty and certainty, but they have quite rigorous mathematical formulations in the form of the following inequalities:

(* note the smirk behind the word,’Philosophy’ while it says the same under the garb of Science.)

And the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a consequence of the certainty principle. The certainty principle generalizes on the unified base both the uncertainty principle and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation for energy and time (discovered in 1945).

A more detailed answer you can find in the paper The certainty principle (review).

An explanation for dummies is given in the article The certainty principle for dummies.

Should the certainty principle be considered more fundamental than the uncertainty principle?

From the point of view of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the certainty principle is just more general.

But from the point of view of relativistic quantum theory, it is more fundamental.

The matter is that for the theory of relativistic quantum systems the notion of “space coordinate”, as a quantum-mechanical observable (a self-adjoint operator), is not natural. Correspondingly, the uncertainty principle turns out to be sapless.

Why did not Heisenberg, Bohr, Schrödinger, Fock… have a hunch of the certainty principle?

Because they did not know relativistic canonical quantization.

Fortunately, now that the certainty principle is already discovered, for its understanding it is sufficient a usual introductory course of quantum mechanics (knowledge of the RCQ-theory is not necessary).

A more concrete answer is given in the popular article The certainty principle for dummies.”

(Source:http://daarb.narod.ru/tcpqa-eng.html)

In simple English, it means that if you accept that the world alone is Real and Absolute, then the The Theories are Certain.

If there is more than one world, then the Certainty theory is not correct.

Now Quantum is proving that there are Multiverses(please read my posts on this subject under Astrophysics).

In conclusion there is no such thing as certainty at all, except in our Mind.

Shankaracharya deals this subject very eloquently  in his Mayavada theory, where he proves both  the Worlds, Relative and Real do exist side by side.

http://transcendentwisdom.wordpress.com/2013/08/18/truth-beauty/

The Uncertainty Principle.

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known simultaneously. For instance, the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa.[1] The original heuristic argument that such a limit should exist was given by Werner Heisenberg in 1927, after whom it is sometimes named the Heisenberg principle. A more formal inequality relating the standard deviation of position σx and the standard deviation of momentum σp was derived by Earle Hesse Kennard[2] later that year and by Hermann Weyl[3] in 1928,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncertainty_principle

Pyramids Show Astronomical Alignment

In Astrophysics, Interesting and funny, Science on August 19, 2013 at 19:44

I posted a blog on 16 October, 2011 that NASA Satellites stumble over Tirunallaru Tamil Nadu and that there is no reference to this in NASA site.

It remains a mystery, though some have called it as a Hoax.

NASA is silent.

NASA is notorious for not acknowledging inconvenient questions, like UFO, Aliens.

Now comes news that the alignment of some Pyramids represent an ancient Astronomical phenomenon.

Let me add that there are ancient temples in India, especially in the South, that allow Sunlight on a particular day on the Idol at the Sanctum Sanctorum,Tree yielding(at the Temple premises) fruit straight from the Flower stage(outside the temple it follows the normal process) stone,Idol where if you insert an iron string through one year it comes through the other ear,Idols changing colors every two and a half hours…the list is endless.

Story:

Pyramid represents ancient Astronomical Alignment.

Archaeologists have discovered a pyramid in southern Peru, built between 600 B.C. and 50 B.C. ago, would have aligned with two stone lines and the setting sun during the winter solstice. Here, a 3D model shows the event that happened at the Cerro del Gentil pyramid during the winter solstice.

 

Pyramid and Astronomical Alignment.

dit: Map by Laura Griffin This map shows the location of the stone lines (also called geoglyphs) along with cairns. The two lines which frame the Cerro del Gentil pyramid, as well as the setting winter solstice sun, are highlighted.

The two stone lines, called geoglyphs, are located about 1.2 miles (2 kilometers) east-southeast from the pyramid.

They run for about 1,640 feet (500 meters), and researchers say the lines were “positioned in such a way as to frame the pyramid as one descended down the valley from the highlands.”

Using astronomical software and 3D modeling, the researchers determined that a remarkable event would have occurred during the time of the winter solstice…..

“When viewed in 3D models, these lines appear to converge at a point beyond the horizon and frame not only the site of Cerro del Gentil [where the pyramid is], but also the setting sun during the time of the winter solstice,” the research team wrote in a poster presentation given recently at the Society for American Archaeology annual meeting in Honolulu.

“Thus someone viewing the sunset from these lines during the winter solstice would have seen the sun setting directly behind, or sinking into, the adobe pyramid,” they write. “Thus the pyramid and the linear geoglyph constitute part of a single architectural complex, with potential cosmological significance, that ritualized the entire pampa landscape.” (The word “pampa” stands for plain.)

The flattop pyramid is 16 feet (5 m) high and was built sometime between 600 B.C. and 50 B.C., being reoccupied somewhere between A.D. 200 and 400. Finds near the pyramid include textiles, shells and ceramics. The stone lines were constructed at some point between 500 B.C. and A.D. 400.

Source:

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http://www.nbcnews.com/id/51791257/#.UhIhDNI3C2Y

 

http://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2011/10/16/us-satelittes-stumble-over-tirunallaruindia/

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