After I posted a List of Temples onverted into Mosques.readers wanted me to collate a List Area,State specific.
I am posting a List for Delhi and Gujarat.
More information can be had at the Links I have provided.
I am also posting the Destruction of Hindu Temples , later turned into mosques, as recorded by Muslim Historians.
A List of Temples destroyed and turned into mosques in Delhi.
The information is shared as our Books do not reflect what Facts really are.
Truth has to be told, shared.
1. Quwwatu’l Islm Masjid (1198).
2. Qutb Mnr
.3. Maqbara of Shamsu’d-Dn Iltutmish (1235.)
4. Dargh of Shykh Qutbu’d-Dn Bakhtyr Kk (d. 1236).
5. Jahz Mahal
.6. AlI Darwz.
7. AlI Mnr.
8. Madrasa and Maqbara of Alu’d-Dn Khalj.
9. Maqbara of Ghiyu’d-Dn Balban.
10. Masjid and Mazr of Shykh Fazlu’llh known as Jaml-Kaml.
11. MaDh Masjid.
II. Sultan GhariMaqbara of Nsiru’d-Dn, son of Sultn Shamsu’d-Dn Iltutmish (1231)
.III. PalamBbr (Ghazanfar) Masjid (1528-29).
2. Bijai Mandal.
3. Klu Sari-k-Masjid.
4. Mazr of Shykh Najbu’d-Dn Mutwakkal Chisht (d. 1272).
V. TughlaqabadMaqbara of Ghiysu’d-Dn Tughlaq.
VI. Chiragh-Delhi1. Dargh of Shykh Nasru’d-Dn Chirgh-i-Dehl (d. 1356).
2. Maqbara of Bahlul Lod
. Mund Gumbads.
5. Bar-Lo-k-Gumbad.6. Barje-k-Gumbad.
XIV. The Ridge1. Mlch Mahal
,2. Bhl Bhatiyri-k-Mahal.
3. Qadam Sharf.
4. Chauburz Masjid
.5. Pr Ghaib.
XV. WazirabadMasjid and Mazr of Shh lam.
XVI. South Extension1. Kle Khn-k-Gumbad
.2. Bhre Khn-k-Gumbad.
3. Chhote Khn-k-Gumbad.
4. BaDe Khn-k-Gumbad.
XVII. Other Areas1. Maqbara of Mubrak Shh in Kotla Mubarakpur.
2. Kushk Mahal in Tin Murti.
3. Sundar Burj in Sundarnagar.
4. Jmi’ Masjid in Kotla Fruz Shh.
5. Abdu’n-Nab-k-Masjid near Tilak Bridge.
6. Maqbara of Raushanra Begum
I. Ahmadabad District.
1. Ahmadabad, Materials of temples destroyed at Asaval, Patan and Chandravati were used in the building of this Muslim city and its monuments. Some of the monuments are listed below :
(i) Palace and Citadel of Bhadra.
(ii) Ahmad Shh-k-Masjid in Bhadra.
(iii) Jmi’ Masjid of Ahmad Shh.
(iv) Haibat Khn-k-Masjid.
(v) Rn Rpmat-k-Masjid.
(vi) Rn B Harr-k-Masjid.
(vii) Malik SraNg-k-Masjid.
(viii) Mahfz Khn-k-Masjid.
(ix) Sayyid lam-k-Masjid.
(x) Pattharwli or Qutb Shh-k-Masjid.
(xi) Sakar Khn-k-Masjid.
(xii) Bb Ll-k-Masjid.
(xiii) Shykh Hasan Muhammad Chisht-k-Masjid.
(xiv) Masjid at Isnpur.
(xv) Masjid and Mazr of Malik Sha’bn.
(xvi) Masjid and Mazr of Rn Spr (Sabarai).
(xvii) Masjid and Mazr of Shh lam at Vatva.
(xviii) Maqbara of Sultn Ahmad Shh I.
2. Dekwara, Masjid (1387). Temple site.
(i) Masjid and Mazr of Bahlol Khn Ghz. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Barkat Shahd (1318). Temple site.
(iii) Tanka or Jmi’ Masjid (1316). Temple materials used.
(iv) Hilll Khn Qz-k-Masjid (1333). Temple materials used.
(v) Khrn Masjid (1377). Converted Bvan Jinlaya Temple.
(vi) Kl Bazar Masjid (1364). Temple site.
4. Isapur, Masjid. Temple site.
(i) Sayyid-k-Masjid (1462). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
6. Paldi, Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
7. Ranpur, Jmi’ Masjid (1524-25). Temple site.
(i) Dargh of Shykh Ahmad Khatt Ganj Baksh (d. 1445). Temple materials used.
(ii) Maqbara of Sultn Mahmd BegaD. Temple materials used.
9. Usmanpur, Masjid and Mazr of Sayyid Usmn. Temple site.
II. Banaskantha District.
1. Haldvar, Mazr of Ln Shh and Gjar Shh. Temple site.
(i) Ek Mnr-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) PNch MuNhD-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Jmi’ Masjid (1523-24). Temple site.
3. Malan, Jmi’ Masjid (1462). Temple materials used.
III. Baroda District.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1504-05) Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Amr Thir with its Ghz Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Pr GhoD (1421-23). Temple site.
(i) Dargh of PNch Bb. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazr of M Dhokr. Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort. Temple materials used.
(iv) Hira, Baroda, MabuDa and NandoDi Gates. Temple materials used.
(v) MahuNDi Masjid. Temple materials used.
3. Danteshwar, Mazr of Qutbu’d-Dn. Temple site.
4. Sankheda, Masjid (1515-16). Temple site.
IV. Bharuch District.
1. Amod, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1321). Brahmanical and Jain temple materials used.
(ii) Ghaznav Masjid (1326). Temple site.
(iii) Idgh (1326). Temple site.
(iv) ChunwD Masjid (1458). Temple site.
(v) Qz-k-Masjid (1609). Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Makhdm Sharfu’d-Dn (1418). Temple site.
3. Jambusar, Jmi’ Masjid (1508-09). Temple site.
4. Tankaria, BaD or Jmi’ Masjid (1453). Temple site.
V. Bhavnagar District.
1. Botad, Mazr of Pr Hamr Khan. Temple site.
2. Tolaja, Idgh and Dargh of Hasan Pr. Temple site.
3. Ghoda, Masjid (1614). Temple site.
VI. Jamnagar District.
1. Amran, Dargh of Dawal Shh. Temple materials used.
2. Bet Dwarka, Dargh of Pr Kirmn. Temple site.
3. Dwarka, Masjid (1473). Temple site.
VII. Junagarh District.
(i) BorwD Masjid (1470). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid in Uparkot. Jain Temple site.
(iii) Masjid at M GaDhech. Converted Jain temple.
2. Loliyana, Dargh of Madr Shh. Temple site.
3. Kutiana, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
(i) Rahmat Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid (1382-83). Temple materials used.
(iii) JnI Jail-k-Masjid (1385-86). Temple site.
(iv) Revl Masjid (1386-87). Temple materials used.
(v) Masjid at Bandar. Temple materials used.
(vi) Dargh near Revli Masjid. Temple materials used.
(vii) Mazr of Sayyid Sikandar alias Makhdm Jahniy (1375). Temple materials used.
(viii) GaDhi Gate. Temple materials used.
5. Somnath Patan
(i) Bzr Masjid (1436). Temple site.
(ii) Chndn Masjid (1456). Temple site.
(iii) Qz-k-Masjid (1539). Temple site.
(iv) PathnwaDi Masjid (1326). Temple site.
(v) Muhammad Jamdr-k-Masjid (1420). Temple site.
(vi) MiThshh Bhang-k-Masjid (1428). Temple site.
(vii) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(viii) Masjid made out of the SomanAtha Temple of Kumrapla.
(ix) Masjid at the back of the Somantha Temple. Converted temple.
(x) Mot Darwza. Temple materials used.
(xi) Mpur Masjid on the way to Veraval. Temple materials used.
(xii) Dargh of Manglri Shh near Mpur Masjid. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Shahd Mahmd-k-Masjid (1694). Temple site.
6. Vanasthali, Jmi’ Masjid. Converted VAmana Temple.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1332). Temple site.
(ii) Nagna Masjid (1488). Temple site.
(iii) Chowk Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) MNDv Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Sayyid Ishq or Maghrib Shh. Temple site.
(vi) Dargh of Muhammad bin Hj Giln. Temple site.
VIII. Kachchh District.
(i) Solkhamb Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) ChhoT Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Pr Ll Shhbz. Jain Temple materials used.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Gumbad of Bb Guru. Temple site.
3. Munra or MunDra, Seaport built from the materials of Jain temples of Bhadreshwar which were demolished by the Muslims; its Safed Masjid which can be seen from afar was built from the same materials.
IX. Kheda District.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1370-71). Temple site.
(ii) Sm Shahd-k-Masjid (1423). Temple site.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1325). Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in Qaziwara (1326). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Undipet (1385). Temple site.
(iv) Sadi-i-Awwal Masjid (1423). Temple site.
(v) Fujr-k-Masjid (1427). Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Umar bin Ahmad Kzrn. Jain Temple materials used.
(vii) Mazr of Qbil Shh. Temple site.
(viii) Mazr of Shykh Al Jaulq known as Parwz Shh (1498). Temple site.
(ix) Mazr of Shh Bahlol Shahd. Temple site.
(x) Maqbara of Ikhtyru’d-Daula (1316). Temple site.
(xi) IdgAh (1381-82). Temple site.
3. Mahuda, Jmi’ Masjid (1318). Temple site.
4. Sojali, Sayyid Mubrak-k-Masjid. Temple site.
X. Mehsana District.
(i) Masjid (1384). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1583). Temple site.
2. Kheralu, Jmi’ Masjid (1409-10). Temple site.
3. Modhera, Rayadi Masjid. Temple site.
4. Munjpur, Jmi’ Masjid (1401-02). Temple site.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1357). Temple materials used.
(ii) Pht Mahalla or Pinjar Kot-k-Masjid (1417). Temple site.
(iii) Bzr-k-Masjid (1490). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid in a field that was the Sahasralinga Talav. Temple materials used.
(v) Masjid and Dargh of Makhdm Husmu’d-Dn Chisht, disciple of Shykh Nizmu’d-Dn Awliya of Delhi. Temple materials used.
(vi) GmD Masjid (1542). Temple site.
(vii) RangrezoN-k-Masjid (1410-11). Temple site.
(viii) Dargh of Shykh Muhammad Turk Kshgar (1444-45). Temple site.
(ix) Dargh of Shykh Fard. Converted temple.
6. Sami, Jmi’ Masjid (1404). Temple site.
7. Sidhpur, Jmi’ Masjid. Built on the site and with the materials of the Rudra-mahlaya Temple of Siddharja JayasiMha.
8. Una, Dargh of Hazrat Shh Pr. Temple site.
(i) Kaln Masjid (1369-70). Temple site.
(ii) Mansr Masjid. Temple site.
XI. Panch Mahals District.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1524). Temple site.
(ii) Bhadra of Mahmd BegD. Temple site.
(iii) Shahr-k-Masjid. Temple site.
2. Godhra, Masjid. Temple site.
(i) Masjid built on top of the Dev Temple.
(ii) PNch MuNhD Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site,
4. Rayania, Masjid (1499-1500). Temple site.
XII. Rajkot District.
1. Jasdan, Dargh of Kl Pr. Temple materials used.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Kaml Shh Pr. Temple site.
3. Mahuva, Idgah (1418). Temple site.
4. Malia, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
5. Morvi, Masjid (1553). Temple site.
6. Santrampur, Masjid (1499-1500). Temple site.
XIII. Sabarkantha District.
1. Hersel, Masjid (1405). Temple site.
2. Himmatnagar, Moti-Mohlat Masjid in Nani Vorwad (1471). Temple site.
(i) Fath or Tekrewl Masjid (1382). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Sikandar Shh Shahd (d. 1418). Temple materials used.
XIV. Surat District.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1340). Temple site.
(ii) Shh Masjid. Temple site.
2. Rander, The Jains who predominated in this town were expelled by Muslims and all temples of the former were converted into mosques. The following mosques stand on the site of and/or are constructed with materials from those temples:
(i) Jmi’ Masjid.
(ii) Nit Naur Masjid.
(iv) Khrw Masjid.
(i) Mirz Smi-k-Masjid (1336). Temple site.
(ii) Nau Sayyid Shib-k-Masjid and the nine Mazrs on Gopi Talav in honour of nine Ghzs. Temple sites.
(iii) Fort built in the reign of Farrukh Siyr. Temple materials used.
(iv) Gopi Talav (1718). Temple materials used.
4. Tadkeshwar, Jmi’ Masjid (1513-14). Temple site.
XV. Surendranagar District.
1. Sara, DarbargaDh-k-Masjid (1523). Temple site.
2. Vad Nagar, Masjid (1694). Stands on the site of the Htakevara
3. Wadhwan, Jmi’ Masjid (1439). Temple site.
Records by Muslim Historians.
The evidence of destruction of thousands of Hindu temples can be primarily found from two different sources:
1. Literary Evidence from the work of renowned Islamic historians
2. Epigraphic Evidence from the inscriptions on numerous Mosques all over India.
This article deals with only the literary evidence.
Hundreds of Muslim historians have glorified the deeds of their Muslim heroes all over India. This by no means is an exhaustive list! To learn more about this, please read both volumes of, Hindu Temples: What Happened To Them? by Sita Ram Goel.
There is elaborate literary evidence from the Islamic sources which glorify the crimes committed by the Muslims in India. Crimes such as the desecration of the Hindu idols, looting of the temples, killing devotees and raping have been well documented by the Muslim historians themselves. They have done so because according to them these Muslim rulers by doing such deeds were following the tenets of Islam and Sunnah of the prophet Mohammed. The literary evidence stated below is in chronological order with reference to the time at which a particular work was written.
1. Name Of The Book: Hindustan Islami Ahad Mein (India under Islamic Rule)
Name Of The Historian: Maulana Abdul Hai.
About The Author: He is a highly respected scholar and taken as an authority on Islamic history. Because of his scholarship and his services to Islam, Maulana Abdul Hai was appointed as the Rector of the Darul Nadwa Ullum Nadwatal-Ulama. He continued in that post till his death in February 1923.
The following section is taken from the chapter Hindustan ki Masjidein (The mosques of India) of the above mentioned book. Here we can see a brief description of few important mosques in India and how each one of them was built upon plundered Hindu temples.
a. Qawwat al-Islam Mosque at Delhi: “According to my findings the first mosque of Delhi is Qubbat al-Islam or Quwwat al-Islam which, Qutubud-Din Aibak constructed in H. 587 after demolishing the Hindu temple built by Prithvi Raj and leaving certain parts of the temple outside the mosque proper; and when he returned from Ghazni in H. 592 he started building, under orders from Shihabud-Din Ghori, a huge mosque of inimitable red stones, and certain parts of the temple were included in the mosque…”
b. The Mosque at Jaunpur: “This was built by Sultan Ibrahim Sharqi with chiseled stones. Originally it was a Hindu temple after demolishing which he constructed the mosque. It is known as the Atala Masjid.”
c. The Mosque at Qanauj: “It is well known that this mosque was built on the foundations of some Hindu temple that stood here. The mosque was built by Ibrahim Sharqi in H. 809 as is recorded in Gharbat Nigar.”
d. Jami Masjid at Etwah: “This mosque stands on the bank of the Jamuna at Etawah. There was a Hindu temple at this place, on the site of which this mosque was constructed. .”
e. Babri Masjid at Ayodhya: “This mosque was constructed by Babar at Ayodhya which Hindus call the birth place of Ramchandraji… Sita had a temple here in which she lived and cooked for her husband. On that very site Babar constructed this mosque in H.963 “
f. Mosque at Benaras: “Mosque of Benares was built by Alamgir Aurangzeb on the site of Bisheshwar Temple. That temple was very tall and held as holy among Hindus. On this very site and with those very stones he constructed a lofty mosque, and its ancient stones were rearranged after being embedded in the walls of the mosque. It is one of the renowned mosques of Hindustan.”
g. Mosque at Mathura: “Alamgir Aurangzeb built a mosque at Mathura. This mosque was built on site of the Govind Dev Temple which was very strong and beautiful as well as exquisite.”
2. Name Of The Book: Futuhu’l-Buldan
Name Of The Historian: Ahmed bin Yahya bin Jabir
About The Author: This author is also known as al-Biladhuri. He lived at the court of Khalifa Al-Mutawakkal (AD 847-861) and died in AD 893. His history is one of the major Arab chronicles.
The Muslim Rulers He Wrote About:
a. Ibn Samurah (AD 653)
“On reaching Dawar, he surrounded the enemy in the mountain of Zur, where there was a famous Hindu temple.” “…Their idol of Zur was of gold, and its eyes were two rubies. The zealous Musalmans cut off its hands and plucked out its eyes, and then remarked to the Marzaban how powerless was his idol…”
b. Qutaibah bin Muslim al-Bahili (AD 705-715)
“Other authorities say that Kutaibah granted peace for 700,000 dirhams and entertainment for the Moslems for three days. The terms of surrender included also the houses of the idols and the fire temples. The idols were thrown out, plundered of their ornaments and burned…”
c. Mohammed bin Qasim (AD 712-715)
“…The town was thus taken by assault, and the carnage endured for three days. The governor of the town, appointed by Dahir, fled and the priests of the temple were massacred. Muhammad marked a place for the Musalmans to dwell in, built a mosque, and left 4,000 Musalmans to garrison the place…”
“…Ambissa son of Ishak Az Zabbi, the governor of Sindh, in the Khilafat of Mu’tasim billah knocked down the upper part of the minaret of the temple and converted it into a prison…”
“…He then crossed the Biyas, and went towards Multan…Muhammad destroyed the water-course; upon which the inhabitants, oppressed with thirst, surrendered at discretion. He massacred the men capable of bearing arms, but the children were taken captive, as well as ministers of the temple, to the number of 6,000. The Musalmans found there much gold in a chamber ten cubits long by eight broad…”
d. Hasham bin ‘Amru al-Taghlabi
“He then went to Khandahar in boats and conquered it. He destroyed the Budd (idol) there, and built in its place a mosque.”
3. Name Of The Book: Tarikh-i-Tabari
Name Of The Historian: Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Jarir at-Tabari
About The Author: This author is considered to be the foremost historian of Islam. The above mentioned book written by him is regarded as the mother of histories.
The Muslim Rulers He Wrote About:
a. Qutaibah bin Muslim al-Bahili (AD 705-715)
“The ultimate capture of Beykund (in AD 706) rewarded him with an incalculable booty; even more than had hitherto fallen into the hands of the Mohammedans by the conquest of the entire province of Khorassaun; and the unfortunate merchants of the town, having been absent on a trading excursion while their country was assailed by the enemy, and finding their habitations desolate on their return contributed further to enrich the invaders, by the ransom which they paid for the recovery of their wives and children. The ornaments alone, of which these women had been plundered, being melted down, produce, in gold, 150,000 meskals; of a dram and a half each. Among the articles of the booty, is also described an image of gold, of 50,000 meskals, of which the eyes were two pearls, the exquisite beauty and magnitude of which excited the surprise and admiration of Kateibah. They were transmitted by him, with a fifth of the spoil to Hejauje, together with a request that he might be permitted to distribute, to the troops, the arms which had been found in the palace in great profusion.”
“A breach was, however, at last effected in the walls of the city in AD 712 by the warlike machines of Kateibah; and some of the most daring of its defenders having fallen by the skill of his archers, the besieged demanded a cessation of arms to the following day, when they promised to capitulate. The request was acceded to the Kateibah; and a treaty was the next day accordingly concluded between him and the prince of Samarkand, by which the latter engaged for the annual payment of ten million of dhirems, and a supply of three thousand slaves; of whom it was particularly stipulated, that none should either be in a state of infancy, or ineffective from old age and debility. He further contracted that the ministers of his religion should be expelled from their temples and their idols destroyed and burnt; that Kateibah should be allowed to establish a mosque in the place of the principal temple….”
“…Kateibah accordingly set set fire to the whole collection with his own hands; it was soon consumed to ashes, and 50,000 meskals of gold and silver, collected from the nails which had been used in the workmanship of the images.”
b.. Yaqub bin Laith (AD 870-871)
Balkh and Kabul (Afghanistan)
“He took Bamian, which he probably reached by way of Herat, and then marched on Balkh where he ruined (the temple) Naushad. On his way back from Balkh he attacked Kabul…”
“Starting from Panjhir, the place he is known to have visited, he must have passed through the capital city of the Hindu Sahis to rob the sacred temple — the reputed place of coronation of the Sahi rulers — of its sculptural wealth…”
“The exact details of the spoil collected from Kabul valley are lacking. The Tarikh [-i-Sistan] records 50 idols of gold and silver and Mas’udi mentions elephants. The wonder excited in Baghdad by baghdad by elephants and pagan idols forwarded to the Caliph by Ya’qub also speaks for their high value.”
4. Name Of The Book: Tarikhu’l-Hind
Name Of The Historian: Abu Rihan Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Biruni al-Khwarizmi.
About The Author: This author spent 40 years in India during the reign of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (AD 997 – 1030). His history treats of the literature and learning of the Hindus at the commencement of the 11th century.
The Muslim Rulers He Wrote About:
a. Jalam ibn Shaiban (9th century AD)
“A famous idol of theirs was that of Multan, dedicated to the sun, and therefore called Aditya. It was of wood and covered with red Cordovan leather; in its two eyes were two red rubies. It is said to have been made in the last Kritayuga …..When Muhammad Ibn Alkasim Ibn Almunaibh conquered Multan, he inquired how the town had become so very flourishing and so many treasures had there been accumulated, and then he found out that this idol was the cause, for there came pilgrims from all sides to visit it. Therefore he thought it best to have the idol where it was, but he hung a piece of cow’s flesh on its neck by way of mockery. On the same place a mosque was built. When the Karmatians occupied Multan, Jalam Ibn Shaiban, the usurper, broke the idol into pieces and killed its priests…”
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