Ancient Hindus had an exhaustive knowledge of Metallurgy.
References to Gold, Silver,Bronze, Copper,Zinc, iron and Steel are found in the ancient texts.
First supply of weapons were made by India to Mediterranean around 3000 BC.
British records of the 18th century show that the country had 20,000 furnaces operating across the country indicating the geographical spread of this knowledge.
Purvokta – bijalohanametasyameva varnitam
Musassaptottaracatussatabheda itiritah II
Translated as - (The melting) of the aforesaid base metals is described here only. In the melting methodology, of good, coarse, average and pig metals, 407 varieties of crucibles are mentioned.
Tasarn dvadasavargah syurjatinirnayah kramat I
Translated as - In the order of origin, there are 12 groups in them.
Lohesu ye bijalohastesam galanakarmani II
Dvitiyavargoktaruusa eva srestha itiritah I
Translated as - In the melting of base metals, it is said, that the second group of crucibles is the best.
Etesarn galane musah pratyekarn vargatassmrtah I
Catvarirnsaditi prokta musakalpa yathakramam I
Tasu ya pancarrutyukta musantarmukhanamika II
Galane bijalohanarn suprasasta itiritah II
Translated as - In the melting of these (base metals), crucibles are remembered from each class of these. The crucible varieties in the second category is mentioned as forty, in order, by the great sages, in (the work) Musha-kalpa.
Amongst these, the one that is mentioned as the fifth named Antar-mukha (inward reflecting) is said to be the best in the melting of base metals.
Dating of Brhad-vimana-shastra Nineteenth Century
Brhad-vimana-shastra (BVS) came into being in the modern times as a revealed text, the revelation having occurred through one Mr. Anekal Subharaya Shastry (born in 1866). An (unpublished) enquiry with the descendents of the family shows that Mr. Shastry had found the manuscript and attempted glory for himself by delivering it as a revelation. Swami Dayananda Saraswati (1824: 1888) in his A treatise on Rig-veda (1875) refers to Bharadwaja’s Vimana-shastra.
Bharadwaja’s Vimana-shastra is considered a part of Yantra-sarwaswam – All about machines.
This is one of the 40 sections that Yantra-sarwaswam is made of. One school of thought places Bharadwaja in 4th century BCE.
Kurmavyasatikamevamuktva sastranusaratah I
TatsvarfIpaparijfianarthamakararh sarnpracaksate II
Translated as - Having stated the Tortoise furnace, as per the scientific treatise, now let us study the shape and size, for further study.
Caturasrarh vartularh va kurmakararn yathavidhi I
Vitastidasakarn kundarn karayet bhuvi sobhanam II
Translated as - A square, circular or tortoise shaped pit of ten palms may be prepared nicely in the earth.
Bhastrikasthapanaya tu tatpurobhagatassphutarn
Kurrnangavat pancamukham pithamekarn
Translated as - For the installation of the air-blower, clear space may be marked on the front side. A tortoise like five-corned structure may be constructed.
Watch The Video.
A vast number of statements and materials presented in the ancient Vedic literatures can be shown to agree with modern scientific findings and they also reveal a highly developed scientific content in these literature.
The great cultural wealth of this knowledge is highly relevant in the modern world.
Techniques used to show this agreement include:
- Marine Archaeology of underwater sites (such as Dvaraka)
- Satellite imagery of the Indus
- Sarasvata River system
- Carbon and Thermoluminiscence Dating of archaeological artifacts
- Scientific Verification of Scriptural statements
- Linguistic analysis of scripts found on archaeological artifacts
- A Study of cultural continuity in all these categories……..
Varahamihira’s Brhat-samhita describes Vajra-lepa and Vajra-sanghata.
The Ashoka Pillar is basically a sand-stone pillar coated with Vajra-Sanghata to look like a metal pillar.
Mauryan caves in Bihar also have a coating that gives the surface the look of glass.
|S.No||Sanskrit name||Common Terminology||Botanical name|
|2||Kapitthaka||Wood apple||Feronia elephantum|
|3||Shalmali||Silk cotton||Morus acedosa|
References to metallurgy may be found in the ancient Tamil literature.
A research survey at Kodumanal has unearthed the remains of an ancient blast furnace, its circular base distinguishable by its white colour, probably the result of high temperature. Around the base, many iron slags, some with embedded burnt clay, vitrified brick-bats, many terracotta pipes with vitrified mouths and a granite slab, which may have been the anvil, have been recovered.
Absence of potsherds and other antiquities has suggested that the smelting place was located outside the boundary of habitation.
More furnaces were discovered at the same site with burnt clay pieces with rectangular holes.
The pieces were part of the furnace wall, the holes designed to allow a natural draught of air to pass through evenly into the furnace. Many vitrified crucibles were also recovered from this site; one of them notable because it was found in an in situ position.
Evidence of steel making is also found in the crucibles excavated at this site.
In addition to iron and steel, the metallurgy seems to have possibly extended to copper, bronze, lead, silver and gold objects.
At Arikamedu, there were indications of small-scale workshops containing the remains of working in metal, glass, semiprecious stones, ivory and shell.
Kodumanal has yielded evidence for the practice of weaving, in the form of a number of intact terracotta spindle whorls pierced at the centre by means of an iron rod, indicating the knowledge of cotton spinning and weaving.
To further strengthen this theory, a well preserved piece of woven cotton cloth was also recovered from this site.
Dyeing vats were spotted at Arikamedu.
Many brick structures have been located at Kaveripumpattinam during on-shore, near shore and off-shore explorations; these provide proof for building construction during Sangam age.
The on-shore structure include an I-shaped wharf and a structure that looks like a reservoir.
The wharf has a number of wooden poles planted in its structure to enable anchorage of boats and to facilitate the handling of cargo.
Among other structures, there is a Buddhist vihara with parts of it decorated using moulded bricks and stucco.
Near shore excavations yielded a brick structure and a few terracotta ring wells.
Off-shore explorations located a fifteen course brick structure, three courses of dressed stone blocks, brick bats and pottery.
At Arikamedu, there were indications of a structure built substantially of timber, possibly a wharf.
Conical jars that could have been used for storing wine and oil have been found near structures that could have been shops or storage areas
. Evidence of continued building activity are present at this site, with the most distinctive structures being those of a possible warehouse, dyeing tanks and lined pits(wiki)