ramanan50

Archive for the ‘Christianity’ Category

Christmas Date Origin Brutal Murder of Innocents Saturnalia

In Christianity on December 15, 2014 at 19:28

As I have pointed out in a few articles that the Bible was compiled ,some three hundred years after the  death of Jesus Christ, by Emperor Constantine   to keep his Kingdom intact.

 

The Old and New Testaments do not give a date for Christ’s Birth.

Christmas.jpg

Christmas, a Pagan Custom

 

The New Testament gives no date or year for Jesus’ birth.  The earliest gospel – St. Mark’s, written about 65 CE – begins with the baptism of an adult Jesus.  This suggests that the earliest Christians lacked interest in or knowledge of Jesus’ birthdate.

  1. The year of Jesus birth was determined by Dionysius Exiguus, a Scythian monk, “abbot of a Roman monastery.  His calculation went as follows:
  2. In the Roman, pre-Christian era, years were counted from ab urbe condita (“the founding of the City” [Rome]).  Thus 1 AUC signifies the year Rome was founded, 5 AUC signifies the 5th year of Rome’s reign, etc.
  3. Dionysius received a tradition that the Roman emperor Augustus reigned 43 years, and was followed by the emperor Tiberius.
  4. Luke 3:1,23 indicates that when Jesus turned 30 years old, it was the 15th year of Tiberius reign.
  5. If Jesus was 30 years old in Tiberius’ reign, then he lived 15 years under Augustus (placing Jesus birth in Augustus’ 28th year of reign).
  6. Augustus took power in 727 AUC.  Therefore, Dionysius put Jesus birth in 754 AUC.
  7. However, Luke 1:5 places Jesus’ birth in the days of Herod, and Herod died in 750 AUC – four years before the year in which Dionysius places Jesus birth.
  8. Joseph A. Fitzmyer – Professor Emeritus of Biblical Studies at the Catholic University of America, member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, and former president of the Catholic Biblical Association – writing in the Catholic Church’s official commentary on the New Testament, writes about the date of Jesus’ birth, “Though the year [of Jesus birth is not reckoned with certainty, the birth did not occur in AD 1.  The Christian era, supposed to have its starting point in the year of Jesus birth, is based on a miscalculation introduced ca. 533 by Dionysius Exiguus.”
  9. The DePascha Computus, an anonymous document believed to have been written in North Africa around 243 CE, placed Jesus birth on March 28.  Clement, a bishop of Alexandria (d. ca. 215 CE), thought Jesus was born on November 18.  Based on historical records, Fitzmyer guesses that Jesus birth occurred on September 11, 3 BCE.

1.Dates were arrived at based on legends quite some time later.

2.The suggested dates by convoluted, unverified and unsupported legends give the dates as,

 

March 28,

September 11,.

 

How come Christmas is fixed on December 25?

 

Roman pagans first introduced the holiday of Saturnalia, a week long period of lawlessness celebrated between December 17-25.  During this period, Roman courts were closed, and Roman law dictated that no one could be punished for damaging property or injuring people during the weeklong celebration.  The festival began when Roman authorities chose “an enemy of the Roman people” to represent the “Lord of Misrule.”  Each Roman community selected a victim whom they forced to indulge in food and other physical pleasures throughout the week.  At the festival’s conclusion, December 25th, Roman authorities believed they were destroying the forces of darkness by brutally murdering this innocent man or woman.

  1. The ancient Greek writer poet and historian Lucian (in his dialogue entitled Saturnalia) describes the festival’s observance in his time.  In addition to human sacrifice, he mentions these customs: widespread intoxication; going from house to house while singing naked; rape and other sexual license; and consuming human-shaped biscuits (still produced in some English and most German bakeries during the Christmas season).
  2. In the 4th century CE, Christianity imported the Saturnalia festival hoping to take the pagan masses in with it.  Christian leaders succeeded in converting to Christianity large numbers of pagans by promising them that they could continue to celebrate the Saturnalia as Christians.
  3. The problem was that there was nothing intrinsically Christian about Saturnalia. To remedy this, these Christian leaders named Saturnalia’s concluding day, December 25th, to be Jesus’ birthday.
  4. Christians had little success, however, refining the practices of Saturnalia.  As Stephen Nissenbaum, professor history at the University of Massachussetts, Amherst, writes, “In return for ensuring massive observance of the anniversary of the Savior’s birth by assigning it to this resonant date, the Church for its part tacitly agreed to allow the holiday to be celebrated more or less the way it had always been.”  The earliest Christmas holidays were celebrated by drinking, sexual indulgence, singing naked in the streets (a precursor of modern caroling), etc.
  5. The Reverend Increase Mather of Boston observed in 1687 that “the early Christians who  first observed the Nativity on December 25 did not do so thinking that Christ was born in that Month, but because the Heathens’ Saturnalia was at that time kept in Rome, and they were willing to have those Pagan Holidays metamorphosed into Christian ones.”

Citation.

http://www.simpletoremember.com/vitals/Christmas_TheRealStory.htm

Christianity Has Over 5000 Denominations Sects

In Christianity on June 26, 2014 at 18:02

Christianity makes fun of Hinduism stating that Hinduism has innumerable Gods ans Sects.

 

Below is a list of Denominations of Christianity.

 

Christianity origins and sects.Image.jpg.

Christianity origins and sects.Click on thee image to enlarge and read more.

 

Click the Bold Alphabets to see the listed items under that.

 

This totals over 5000!

 

It may be noted that this represents only the protestant Side!

 

Christian denomination is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and doctrine within Christianity.

Some groups included do not consider themselves adenomination (e.g., the Catholic Church considers itself the one true church and the Apostolic See, and as pre-denominational).

 

Some groups viewed by non-adherents as denominational actively resist being called a denomination and do not have any formal denominational structure, authority, or record-keeping beyond the local congregation; several groups within Restoration Movement fall into this category.

Some groups are large (e.g. CatholicsOrthodoxLutheransAnglicans or Baptists), while others are just a few small churches, and in most cases the relative size is not evident in this list.

 

Modern movements such as Fundamentalist ChristianityPietismEvangelicalismPentecostalism and the Holiness movement sometimes cross denominational lines, or in some cases create new denominations out of two or more continuing groups, (as is the case for many United and uniting churches, for example). Such subtleties and complexities are not clearly depicted here.

 

Between denominations, theologians, and comparative religionists there are considerable disagreements about which groups can be properly called Christian, disagreements arising primarily from doctrinal differences between groups.

For the purpose of simplicity, this list is intended to reflect the self-understanding of each denomination.

Explanations of different opinions concerning their status as Christian denominations can be found at their respective articles.

There is no official recognition in most parts of the world for religious bodies, and there is no official clearinghouse which could determine the status or respectability of religious bodies. Often there is considerable disagreement between various churches about whether other churches should be labeled with pejorative terms such as “cult”, or about whether this or that group enjoys some measure of respectability.

Such considerations often vary from place to place, where one religious group may enjoy majority status in one region, but be widely regarded as a “dangerous cult” in another part of the world. Inclusion on this list does not indicate any judgment about the size, importance, or character of a group or its members.

Denomination Name

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

A of BC in Luzon Visayas Mindanao
A Unterstütz in Mennonitengemeinden
Abbott Loop Fell of Community Churches
Aboriginal pentecostal congregations
Absolute Maori Established Church
Acção Bíblica
Acción Misionera Iglesia de Dios
Achang Church
Achewa Baptist Church
Action Apostolique
Action Biblique
Acts Mission Church of South Africa
Acts of Apostles Christ Church Nigeria
Advent Christian Church
Advent Christian Conference
Advent Christian Conference of Japan
Adventist Church
Adventists of the True Remnant
Africa Christian network
Africa Evangelical Church
Africa Evangelical Church of Malawi
Africa Gospel Church
Africa Gospel Unity Church
Africa Inland Church
African Apostolic Church of Johane Maranke
African Apostolic Church of Johane Masowe
African Apostolic Church of Nigeria & Benin
African Apostolic Church St Simon & St Johane
African Apostolic Faith Mission
African Assemblies of God
African Baptist Assembly Malawi
African Born Full Gospel Apostolic Ch
African Brotherhood Church
African Catholic Church
African Christian Church & Schools
African Christians Fellowship
African Church
African Church Mission
African Church of Jesus Christ in Kenya
African Church of the Holy Spirit
African Church The
African Congregational Church
African Covenant Church
African Disciples of Christ
African Divine Church
African Evangelical Presbyterian Ch
African Faith Tabernacle Church
African Free Presb Church of Zimbabwe
African Full Gospel Church
African Gospel Church
African Holy Zionist Church
African Independent Church of Kenya
African Independent Pentecostal Church of Africa
African Interior Church
African Israel Church Nineveh
African Methodist Church in Zimbabwe
African Methodist Episcopal Church
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Ch
African Mission of Holy Ghost Church
African National Church
African National/International Church
African New Life Ministries
African Reformed Coptic Church of God
African Salvation Army Church
African Union First Colored MP Ch
Afrikaans Baptist Church
Afrikaans Protestant Church
Agape Fellowship
Agape Ministries International
Akha Church
Aladura Internat Church UK & Overseas….

Citation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Christian_denominations

 

http://www.philvaz.com/DENOMS.php

 

Image Credit.

http://church-discipline.blogspot.in/2011/08/christian-origins.html

 

 

“Don’t Respect Other Religions” The Bible

In Christianity on June 26, 2014 at 08:19

 

If some one has a doubt that Christianity whether Christianity respects other Religions, here is quote and explanation from Edward D. Waller, Ph. D. in

Catholic News.

 

Catholicism.Image.bmp

Catholicism.

 

The statement and the article is directed at Protestants and those who are Non Catholics among the Christians.

 

If this is the attitude towards their sister groups,whom the consider as their mortal enemies, what is there to sa about other Religions?

 

 

If respecting other religions means to refrain from interfering with other people’s beliefs, then how do we reconcile Christ’s words to His apostles before ascending into Heaven? “

And Jesus coming, spoke to them, saying: All power is given to Me in Heaven and in earth. Going therefore, teach ye all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world.” (Matt.28:18-20)

Christ’s instructions were very clearly given to His apostles. They were commanded to teach ALL (not some) nations ALL things (not some things) whatsoever Christ had commanded them to teach. That is, Christ gave them the revealed truth and all His doctrines. The apostles were not told to respect those nations or beliefs that held different beliefs from Christ’s teachings. Even Christ professed Truth to the elite Rabbis who rejected not only His teachings, but Christ as Son of God. Christ was crucified on the cross because He did not compromise His teachings

 

Is it possible to consider worthy of high regard or esteem other religious beliefs that are contradictions to the Truth found within the Roman Catholic Church? Should we respect religions that allow polygamy, deny the Divinity of Jesus Christ, deny original sin and the Immaculate Conception? Should we respect beliefs of others that allow divorce, abortion and permit homosexuality as a lifestyle?

How can TRUE Catholics hold these beliefs in high regard or esteem and call themselves followers of Christ? As a Catholic I should respect my fellow brothers and sisters. I can hold human beings in high regard and esteem because each one of us has been created in the image and likeness of God. Jesus gave us the commandment to love God with all our heart, mind and soul and to love our neighbor as ourselves. He did not tell us to love sin or beliefs that contradict His teachings. Thus, I will not elevate with high regard or esteem any religion or belief that contradicts the teachings of Jesus Christ.

Pope Pius XII states in the same encyclical, “…God has given to His Church a living Teaching Authority to elucidate and explain what is contained in the deposit of faith only obscurely and implicitly. This deposit of faith our Divine Redeemer has given authentic interpretation not to each of the faithful, not even to theologians, but only to the Teaching Authority of the Church.” He further states that Christ appointed the Church as “guardian and interpreter of the whole deposit of divinely revealed truth”.

God did not send His only begotten Son into the world to establish a multiple of religions equally meriting salvation. If this were the case, there would have been no need for Christ to die on the cross, for all religions would have been equally pleasing to God. Christ came to establish His Church which contains the WHOLE deposit of divinely revealed truth which is the ONLY means to salvation. The present post-conciliar Church has silenced the doctrine of “No Salvation Outside the Catholic Church” as a means of promoting false ecumenism which attempts to establish respect for all religions.

I can not understand how Catholics could fall for such nonsense. Are they unaware that a doctrine can never be revoked. A doctrine is a revealed truth through God that can NEVER change. God is pure Truth and can never deceive us. Only man and the serpent are capable of deceptive ploys.

Pope Pius XII reiterates this doctrine very clearly and precisely. “Some say they are not bound by the doctrine which teaches that the Mystical Body of Christ and the Roman Catholic Church are one and the same thing. Some reduce to a meaningless formula the necessity of belonging to the true Church in order to gain eternal salvation. Others finally belittle the reasonable character of the credibility of Christian faith. These and like ERRORS, it is clear, have crept in among certain of our sons who are deceived by imprudent zeal for souls or by false science.”..

Since the Second Vatican Council, there has been great emphasis on ecumenism or unity among all religions. We are now hearing from all levels within the Roman Catholic Church that we must RESPECT all religions. We are told that we must refrain from forcing our beliefs onto others. We are told that all religions hold some truth that may lead to salvation of souls. What we have not been told is that this notion is UTTER NONSENSE and contrary to our traditional faith.

In the encyclical, Humani Generis, Pope Pius XII warns the faithful about false “irenics” (ecumenism). He states: “Another danger is perceived which is all the more concealed beneath the mask of virtue. There are many who, deploring disagreement among men and intellectual confusion, through an imprudent zeal for souls, are urged by a great and ardent desire to do away with the barrier that divides good and honest men; these advocate an ‘irenism’ according to which, by setting aside the questions which divide men, they aim not only at joining forces to repel the attack of atheism, but also at reconciling things opposed to one another in the field of dogma.

“…But some through enthusiasm for an imprudent ‘irenism’ seem to consider as an obstacle to the restoration of fraternal union things founded on the laws and principles given by Christ and likewise on institutions founded by Him, or which are the defense and support of the integrity of the faith, and the removal of which would bring about the union of all, but only to their destruction.

“In theology some want to reduce to a minimum the meaning of dogmas: and to free dogma itself from terminology long established in the Church and from philosophical concepts held by Catholic teachers … They cherish the hope that when dogma is stripped of the elements which they hold to be extrinsic to divine revelation, it will compare advantageously with the dogmatic opinions of those who are separated from the unity of the Church and that in this way they will gradually arrive at a mutual assimilation of Catholic dogma with the tenets of the dissidents.

“Moreover they assert that when Catholic doctrine has been reduced to this condition, a way will be found to satisfy modern needs, that will permit dogma being expressed also by the concepts of modern philosophy … Some more audaciously affirm that this can and must be done, because they hold that the mysteries of faith are never expressed by truly adequate concepts but only by approximate and ever changeable notions, in which the truth is to some extent expressed, but is necessarily distorted.”

 “A person sins against faith, first, by not trying to know what God has taught; second, by refusing to believe all that God has taught; third, by neglecting to profess his belief in what God has taught.”

(Baltimore Catechism No. 4, p. 265) False worship is a sin against the First Commandment. “And now that we have the real sacrifice it would be sinful to use only figures, (as in other religions) and it would be a false worship displeasing to God …So, too, all those who leave the true Church to practice a religion of their own have a false worship, for they worship God not as He wants, but as they wish” (Baltimore Catechism No. 4, p. 261).

Citation.

http://www.olrl.org/doctrine/respect.shtml

Accept Hinduism To Convert Hindus, Christianity

In Christianity on June 23, 2014 at 19:47

If you want to defeat some one whom you think is your enemy, join the enemy, become one with him follow his customs.

 

All this to win him over.

 

Christians wanted to convert non Christians.

 

The term used for this shameless act of converting others is Evangelism, as if there are no Angels anywhere.

 

The Jesuits came against a brick wall in Hinduism with its sound philosophy and way of Life.

 

Nazraney Sthambams.jimage.jpg.

Nazraney Sthambams

 

The had no clue to convert  Hindus .

 

The tactics that worked elsewhere did not help them.

 

The sought the help of the Holy See.

 

The received instructions to become one with the Hindus b adopting their customs including Upaveeda.

 

These are called Malabar Rites.

 

Read the History from The Catholic Encyclopedia.

 

Malabar Rites.

 

A conventional term for certain customs or practices of the natives of South India, which the Jesuitmissionaries allowed their neophytes to retain after conversion, but which were afterwards prohibited by theHoly See. The missions concerned are not those of the coast of southwestern India, to which the nameMalabar properly belongs, but those of inner South India, especially those of the former “kingdoms” of Madura,Mysore and the Karnatic.

The question of Malabar Rites originated in the method followed by the Jesuits, since the beginning of the seventeenth century, in evangelizing those countries. The prominent feature of that method was a condescending accommodation to the manners and customs of the people the conversion of whom was to be obtained. But, when bitter enemies asserted, as some still assert, that the Jesuit missionaries, in Madura,Mysore and the Karnatic, either accepted for themselves or permitted to their neophytes such practices as theyknew to be idolatrous or superstitious, this accusation must be styled not only unjust, but absurd. In fact it is tantamount to affirming that these men, whose intelligence at least was never questioned, were so stupid as to jeopardize their own salvation in order to save others, and to endure infinite hardships in order to establish among the Hindus a corrupt and sham Christianity.

The popes, while disapproving of some usages hitherto considered inoffensive or tolerable by the missionaries, never charged them having adulterated knowingly the purity of religion. On one of them, who had observed the “Malabar Rites” for seventeen years previous to his martyrdom, the Church has conferred the honour ofbeatification. The process for the beatification of Father John de Britto was going on at Rome during the hottest period of the controversy upon the famous “Rites”; and the adversaries of the Jesuits assertedbeatification to be impossible, because it would amount to approving the “superstitions and idolatries” maintained by the missioners of Madura. Yet the cause progressed, and Benedict XIV, on 2 July, 1741, declared “that the rites in question had not been used, as among the Gentiles, with religious significance, but merely as civil observances, and that therefore they were no obstacle to bringing forward the process”. (Brief of Beatification of John de Britto, 18 May, 1852.) There is no reason to view the “Malabar Rites”, as practised generally in the said missions, in any other light. Hence the good faith of the missionaries in tolerating the native customs should not be contested; on the other hand, they, no doubt, erred in carrying this tolerationtoo far. But the bare enumeration of the Decrees by which the question was decided shows how perplexing it was and how difficult the solution.

 

Robert de Nobili.

 

The founder of the missions of the interior of South India, Roberto de Nobili, was born at Rome, in 1577, of a noble family from Montepulciano, which numbered among many distinguised relatives the celebrated Cardinal Roberto Bellarmine. When nineteen years of age, he entered the Society of Jesus; and, after a few years, the young religious, aiming at the purest ideal of self-sacrifice, requested his superiors to send him to the missions of India. He embarked at Lisbon, 1604, and in 1606 was serving his apostolic apprenticeship in SouthIndiaChristianity was then flourishing on the coasts of this country. It is well known that St. Francis Xavierbaptized many thousands there, and from the apex of the Indian triangle the faith spread along both sides, especially on the west, the Malabar coast. But the interior of the vast peninsula remained almost untouched. The Apostle of the Indies himself recognized the insuperable opposition of the “Brahmins and other noble castes inhabiting the interior” to the preaching of the Gospel (Monumenta Xaveriana, I, 54). Yet his discipleswere not sparing of endeavours. A Portuguese Jesuit, Gonsalvo Fernandes, had resided in the city of Madurafully fourteen years, having obtained leave of the king to stay there to watch over the spiritual needs of a fewChristians from the coast; and, though a zealous and pious missionary, he had not succeeded, within that longspace of time, in making one convert. This painful state of things Nobili witnessed in 1606, when together with his superior, the Provincial of Malabar, he paid a visit to Fernandes. At once his keen eye perceived the causeand the remedy.

 

At Rome the explanations of Nobili, of the Archbishop of Cranganore, and of the chief Inquisitor of Goa brought about a similar effect. In 1614 and 1615 Cardinal Bellarmine and the General of the Society wrote again to the missionary, declaring themselves fully satisfied. At last, after the usual mature examination by the Holy See, on 31 January, 1623, Gregory XV, by his Apostolic Letter, “Romanae Sedis Antistes”, decided the question provisionally in favour of Father de Nobili. Accordingly, the codhumbi, the cord, the sandal, and the baths were permitted to the Indian Christians, “until the Holy See provide otherwise”; only certain conditions are prescribed, in order that all superstitious admixture and all occasion of scandal may be averted. As to the separation of the castes, the pope confines himself to “earnestly entreating and beseeching (etiam atque etiam obtestamur et obsecramus) the nobles not to despise the lower people, especially in the churches, by hearing the Divine word and receiving the sacraments apart from them”. Indeed, a strict order to this effect would have been tantamount to sentencing the new-born Christanity of Madura to death. The popeunderstood, no doubt, that the customs connected with the distinction of castes, being so deeply rooted in theideas and habits of all Hindus, did not admit an abrupt suppression, even among the Christians. They were to be dealt with by the Church, as had been slavery, serfdom, and the like institutions of past times. The Churchnever attacked directly those inveterate customs; but she inculcated meekness, humility, charity, love of theSaviour who suffered and gave His life for all, and by this method slavery, serfdom, and other social abuses were slowly eradicated.

 

Besides the Brahmin saniassy, there was another grade of Hindu ascetics, called pandaram, enjoying less consideration than the Brahmins, but who were allowed to deal publicly with all castes, and even holdintercourse with the pariahs. They were not excluded from relations with the higher castes. On the advice ofNobili, the superiors of the mission with the Archbishop of Cranganore resolved that henceforward there should be two classes of missionaries, the Brahmin and the pandaram.

 

Citation.

 

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09558b.htm

 

 

Roman Brahmin With Upaveeda, Bible Lost Veda

In Christianity on June 23, 2014 at 18:14

If people who read my post ‘Christians posing  as Brahmins, new method of Conversion’ are struck with the idea to be original, they are wrong.

 

Their predecessor,not only posed as a Brahmin from Rome, he also wore the sacred thread,Upaveeda.

 

 

He had the Upaveeda sanctioned be a Pope!

 

He wore Sandal paste on his forehead, wooden sandals on his feet, had a Kudil(Asrama in Sanskrit)

 

He learnt Tamil and wrote Thembavani, a Tamil work on the Life of Christ.

 

He propagated that the Bible was the Lost Veda.

 

The gentleman, who is venerated b the ilks of frauds like Karunanidhi is none other than Robert De Nobili and his work on Jesus was a compulsory

 

portion from standard  Ten (4 Form as it was called when I studied, some 45  Years back, it was still there when my son studied some 15 Years back)

 

Roman Brahmin!
The man who laid the foundation of inculturation was the Italian priest Robert de Nobili (1577-1656). He learnt Sanskrit and Tamil, wore saffron robes, sacred thread (attached with a small Cross!) and sandal mark on forehead and called himself a ‘Roman Brahmin’. He set up an “Ashram” in Madurai, became a vegetarian and used “Pathukas” (wooden footwear). He claimed the Bible was the “Lost Veda”, the “Jesuit Veda” revealed by God, and was considerably successful in harvesting souls. Fortunately for Tamil Nadu, his European masters were not happy with his inculturation methods and subjected him to an enquiry which forced him to shift to other places like Trichy and Salem. Finally he settled in a small house in Santhome, Madras, and died in 1656. ..

 

talian Munivar!
The next Italian missionary, Constantine Joseph Beschi (1680-1746), called himself Veeramaamunivar (Veer-Maha-Munivar) to pretend he was a great lover of Tamil. Outwardly conducting himself like a Hindu Sanyasi, he took care of the conversion business in the districts of Madurai and Thanjavur. His work on a biography of St. Joseph, Thembaavani, was hyped as a great work and projected as equivalent to Kambar’s Ramayana!

Even now it is propagated that impressed with the beauty and richness of Kamba Ramayana, Beschi wanted to create a similar Christian work and hence came out with Thembaavani. It benefitted Christianity by establishing St. Joseph in Tamil Nadu. He then came out with another work, Paramartha Guruvum avarin Seedarkalum (Paramartha Guru and his Disciples), to ridicule our centuries old ‘Guru-Sishya Parampara.’ This “Munivar”, who denigrated our Guru-Sishya Parampara, was honoured by Dravidian racists who installed a statue of him on Marina Beach.4

German Iyer!
In the same period, a German missionary Barthalomaus Ziegenbalg (1683-1719) also worked in Tamil Nadu and called himself Ziegenbalg Iyer. This Protestant priest landed in Tranquebar (Tharangampaadi) in 1706 and worked with a Danish company which was the first to bring German printing machines to Tamil Nadu. He printed the first Tamil Bible (New Testament). Even while indulging in conversions, he often quarrelled with the Danish authorities who put him in jail for some time. He was the first to stoke anti-Brahmanism by creating a hatred for Brahmins among other communities. As he fell sick often, he died at the age of 36 in 1719, leaving behind two Churches, a training institute for converted Indian priests, and 250 converts in Tranquebar. 5

Italian Iyer
Next in the list of Christian Priests who “served” the cause of inculturation was another ‘Iyer’ – G.U. Pope (1820-1907) or ‘Pope Iyer.’ He translated a few Tamil literary works such as ThiruvaachakamThirukkural and Naaladiyaar, and said he could find the teachings of Apostle St. Paul and St. Francis of Assisi in Sri Maanickavaachakar’s Thiruvaachakam; innocent Tamil scholars felt elated at his ‘graciousness’.

Even some Tamil Saivite Mutts felt proud at G.U. Pope’s statement. Tamil scholar Muthukumaraswamy, who has in-depth knowledge on Saiva Siddhanta, demolishes this myth, citing Pope’s own statement, “In the whole legendary history of this sage … there stands out a real historical character, which seems to be a mixture of that of St. Paul and of St. Francis of Assisi. Under other circumstances what an apostle of the East might have become,” as evidence of Pope’s sarcasm and disdain. He exposes the mindset of G.U. Pope who states that a Religious Guru from the East would not have attained a spiritual level beyond this in order to undermine the spiritual greatness of Sage Maanickavaachakar.

Dr. Muthukumaraswamy quotes another instance where G.U. Pope ridicules murti worship or vigraha aradana: “G.U. Pope says that a person who attains a higher level of spiritualism also indulges in Murti worship and rustic rituals, which go totally against his level of spiritualism.” 6

There is another concocted story about G.U. Pope in Tamil Nadu which says that Pope wanted the statement, “Ingu oru Thamizh Maanavan urangukiraan” (A Tamil student is sleeping here) sculpted on his cemetery and that the statement is still present there on his cemetery. But those who have gone to the cemetery have confirmed that there was no such statement written on his cemetery except the ones from the Bible.

Born in MontepulcianoTuscany in September 1577, Roberto de Nobili arrived in Goa in western India on May 20, 1605. It is probable that he met here Fr Thomas Stephens, SJ, who had arrived in Goa in 1579, and was probably in the process of composing his Khristapurana.[1]

After a short stay in Cochin in Kerala, he took up residence in Madurai in Tamil Nadu in November 1606. He soon called himself a “teacher of wisdom” (தத்துவ போதகர்), and began to dress like a Sannyasin. Claiming noble parentage he approached high-caste people, and eagerly engaged in dialogue with Hindu scholars about the truths of Christianity.

De Nobili mastered SanskritTelugu and Tamil languages and literature, with the help of his teacher, Shivadharma. As he expounded the Christian doctrine in Tamil he coined several words to communicate his message. He used the word “kovil” (கோவில்) for a place of worship, “arul” (அருள்) and “prasadam” (பிரசாதம்) for grace, “guru” (குரு) for priest or teacher, “Vedam” (வேதம்) for the Bible, “poosai” (பூசை) for Mass, etc.

He adopted also local Indian customs, such as shaving one’s head and keeping only a tiny tuft. He wore a white dhoti and wooden sandals, to don the look of a sanyasin. Another symbol he embraced was the wearing of a three-stringed thread across the chest. He interpreted the three-stringed thread as representing the Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

He was one of the first Europeans to gain a deep understanding of Sanskrit and Tamil. He composed Catechisms, apologetic works and philosophic discourses in Tamil, and contributed greatly to the development of modern Tamil prose writing.

 

His method raised a fierce controversy among his fellow Jesuits and with the Archbishop of Goa Cristóvão de Sá e Lisboa. The dispute was settled by Pope Gregory XV with the Constitution Romanæ Sedis Antistes issued on 31 January 1623. The customs of the three-stringed thread, the tuft, the use of sandalwood paste on the forefront and baths were allowed, inasmuch they did not imply any superstitious ritual. The Pope invited also the Indian neophytes to overcome their caste sensitivity and their despisal of the pariahs.

 

Citation.

http://vsrc.in/%E0%AE%95%E0%AE%BF%E0%AE%B1%E0%AE%BF%E0%AE%B8%E0%AF%8D%E0%AE%A4%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%B5%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%8D/item/54-inculturation-the-most-potent-weapon-in-the-church-s-armoury

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roberto_de_Nobili

 

 

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 3,071 other followers

%d bloggers like this: