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Large Numbers Modern Maths Tamil Classics

In Astrophysics, Tamils on December 5, 2014 at 18:14

In the highly complex world of Astronomy, where very huge distances are to be measured special numbers are needed to count.

 

The presence of Large numbers indicate that knowledge of such huge numbers were necessitated .

 

That is possible only when Knowledge of such numerals are needed.

World's Largest Number.png

World’s Largest Number.

 

And such a field is Astronomy.

 

Unless one has a very deep insight into the working of the Universe , one would not have devised the numbers and more importantly  would not have systematized them.

 

The largest Number used now ,

 

When a number represents a quantity rather than a count, SI prefixes can be used—thus “femtosecond”, not “one quadrillionth of a second”—although often powers of ten are used instead of some of the very high and very low prefixes. In some cases, specialized units are used, such as the astronomer’s parsec and light year or the particle physicist’s barn.

Nevertheless, large numbers have an intellectual fascination and are of mathematical interest, and giving them names is one of the ways in which people try to conceptualize and understand them.

One of the first examples of this is The Sand Reckoner, in which Archimedes gave a system for naming large numbers. To do this, he called the numbers up to a myriad myriad (108) “first numbers” and called 108 itself the “unit of the second numbers”. Multiples of this unit then became the second numbers, up to this unit taken a myriad myriad times, 108·108=1016. This became the “unit of the third numbers”, whose multiples were the third numbers, and so on. Archimedes continued naming numbers in this way up to a myriad myriad times the unit of the 108-th numbers, i.e., (10^8)^{(10^8)}=10^{8\cdot 10^8}, and embedded this construction within another copy of itself to produce names for numbers up to \left((10^8)^{(10^8)}\right)^{(10^8)}=10^{8\cdot 10^{16}}. Archimedes then estimated the number of grains of sand that would be required to fill the known Universe, and found that it was no more than “one thousand myriad of the eighth numbers” (1063)….

 

The Largest Standard Dictionary Number, on date, is, Centillion ,10303.

 

Tamil Classics name, 1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 = MAHAYUGAM = Ten Undecillion = 10 37.

 

This is 10 steps later to Decillion.

 

That is adding the power.

 

The basic computation in a Language that is over 5000 Year old….?

 

Shall be posting on minute measurements in Tamil and on Large and smallest numbers in Vedic System.

 

Citation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_units_of_measurement

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_large_numbers

 

First Nakshatra Ashvini,Moola or Krittika?

In Astrophysics, Hinduism on December 4, 2014 at 11:00

There seems to be some debate on which is the Nakshatra in Hindu system.

 

Normally we take Aswini Nakshatra as the first Nakshatra and this is being followed every where among Hindu Households.

 

But there are views that it might be Krittika, Moola , based  on Vedic Astronomical calculations in the Atharva Veda.

 

1.Moola as the First Nakshatra.

 

If one star is to be identified as Moola, then the best candidate for Moola or Vichruta Nakshatra is 42 q OPH from Ophichius zodiac of the European system. It falls in the star band and is 50 minutes or 13 degrees (E-W) away from Jyeshta. Its brightness is +3.28. Arab Sabik is another strong candidate for Moola with +2.43 brightness and is also 13 degrees from Jyeshta.

Sagittarius,Dhanus Constellation.jgif

shows 30 degrees square area around Dhanu Raashi. The Nakshatras in this figure are Vichruta/Moola, and Poorvaashada. Both the stars are in the moon traverse band. For the imaginative, a stretched bow can be seen in the Dhanu Raashi. Vichruta or Moola Nakshatras considered to be a star mansion with eleven stars

Moola or Vichruta has been extensively referred to in Atharveda Kaanda 2,Kaanda 3 and kaanda 6 (Ref 2). Vichruta, stands for darkness and Moola carries an adjective Arishta. This word has two meanings, one standing for sweet and second associated with bad associated with death. Astronomically, Moola is in line with Milkiway galactic center. Did some astronomical event appear 5000 years ago near the center of Milkiway galaxy, which could explain why Moola is considered as bad? In modern astronomy, there have been conjectures of a black hole at the center of our Milkiway. This area of sky is visually dark because large amount of matter is presumed to exist around the center of the Galaxy. Did vedic period astronomers know of the center of the galaxy or did they see some astronomical event justifying the bad omen associated with Moola?.

Poorvaashaada Nakshatra is considered to be a star mansion of two stars. The following table presents candidate stars, which qualify as Poorvashaada based on brightness, location with reference to moon traverse band, and distance from previous Nakshatra.

http://www.vedicastronomy.net/stars_dhanu.htm

2″Krittika as the First Nakshatra.

1. Rishi Gargya starts the list of twenty seven nakshatra‘s starting with Krittika. Choice of Krittika as the first of twenty-seven is very significant. In contrast Jyotishya Shaastra uses Ashwini as the first star. The choice of first Nakshatra must correspond to a logically first day of a solar year, which dictates the weather cycles. Which is the year’s first day? Astronomically speaking, the spring Equinox day in Northern Hemisphere temperate zone is a logical one. It heralds the arrival of the spring, in temperate zone of northern hemisphere of the earth. Vasantha ritu, the spring has always been considered as beginning of a year from Rig-vedic times. Hence, the first observation implicit in Rishi Gargya’s sooktha is that on spring Equinox day, Sun was at Krittika Nakshatra. Figure 13 shows Sun location on March 21, 2400 BC from Load Star Pro. The Sun is on equator and is pointing to Krittika nakshatra.

Gargya Rishi! Nakshatrani Devata! Trishtup-Bhurik Chandaha!

Chitrani sakam divi rochanani sarisrupani bhuvanejavani

turmisham sumatimichaamaano ahaani geerbhi saparyami nakam!1!

suhavamagne krittika rohini chaastu bhadram mrigashirah Sham aardhrah !

punarvasu soonruta chaaru pushyo Bhaanur aslesha ayanam magha mey !2!

punyam poorva Phalguni chottra hasta schittra shiva swaati sukho mey astu!

raadhe vishaakhe suhav anooradha jyeshta sunakshatramarishta moolam !3!

annam poorva raasataam aashadha oorja devy uttaraa aavahantu!

abhijinma raasataam punyameva shravanah shravishtaah kurvatam supushtim!4!

Aa mey maha chatabhishagam vareeya Aa mey dvaya proshtapadaa susharma!

Aa reyvato chashvayujow bhagam ma Aa mey rayim Bharanya aavahantu!5!

This Sookta dedicated to Nakshatra‘s was recorded (Drashtaara) by Gargya Rishi. The Sookta describes both astronomical and astrological elements. Twenty eight Nakshatras are identified starting with Krittika and reference is made to Ayanam occurring in Maghaa. A nakshatra Abhijit is shown between Uttarashadha and Shravana. Its use has been discontinued in the Jyotishya with only twenty seven identified currently. The authenticity of the Athrarvana texts is well accepted, by the very reverence shown towards precise learning. Hundreds of generations of Shrotreeya’s have carried veda‘s down to us in its original language using oral traditions of Krama, Pada, Jatha, and Ghana Paatha so that distortions are nonexistent. Two major astronomical time markers are evident and implicit in the Sooktha.

http://www.vedicastronomy.net/stars_appendix.htm

Higher Astronomy Instruments Designs Surya Siddhanta

In Astrophysics, Hinduism on December 1, 2014 at 18:00

Many are under the impression that Hinduism, especially the Vedas are theoretical and do not address to the problems of daily Life or Science.

 

Nothing can be farther from the Truth.

 

Surya Siddhanta.jpg

Surya Siddhanta.

 

I had posted articles on practical application of Science,Dealing with daily life, Botany,Zoology, Food and other vital subjects that deal with our daily needs, developed by Hinduism.

 

Here I am furnishing details from the Surya Siddhanta that deals with Astronomy in detail.

 

I had earlier posted an article on Vishnu’s Navel Galaxy and how it has been validated by modern Astronomy.

 

The Surya Siddhanta is one of the oldest treatises (siddhanta) in Hindu astronomy. The extant text as edited by Burgess (1860) is medieval (c. 12th century), but it is clearly based on older versions, which may go back to before the Common Era[citation needed].

It has rules laid down to determine the true motions of the luminaries, which conform to their actual positions in the sky. It gives the locations of several stars other than the lunar nakshatras and treats the calculation of solar eclipses. as well as solstices eg.summer solstice 21/06 Significant coverage is on kinds of time, length of the year of gods and demons, day and night of god Brahma, the elapsed period since creation, how planets move eastwards and sidereal revolution. The lengths of the Earth’s diameter, circumference are also given. Eclipses and color of the eclipsed portion of the moon is mentioned.”

 

Table of contents in Surya Siddhanta.

 

  1. The Mean Motions of the Planets
  2. True Places of the Planets
  3. Direction, Place and Time
  4. The Moon and Eclipses
  5. The Sun and Eclipses
  6. The Projection of Eclipses
  7. Planetary Conjunctions
  8. Of the Stars
  9. Risings and Settings
  10. The Moon’s Risings and Settings
  11. Certain Malignant Aspects of the Sun and Moon
  12. Cosmogony, Geography, and Dimensions of the Creation
  13. The Gnomon
  14. The Movement of the Heavens and Human Activity.

Design of Astronomical Instruments are also provided.

Astronomical Instruments by Surya Siddhantham.jpg

Astronomical Instruments
by Surya Siddhanhtam.Click to enlarge

 

Link to Surya Siddhanta Text by Arya Bhatta.

 

https://archive.org/details/SuryaSiddhanta

http://www.wilbourhall.org/pdfs/suryaenglish.pdf

Parallel Multi Universe In Hinduism Astronomy

In Astrophysics, Hinduism on November 18, 2014 at 12:03

Hinduism is the first religion o have formed  a Cyclic Theroy of Time, that is Time runs in cycles,

 

The Four Yugas, Aeons, Krutha, Tretha,Dwapara and Kali repeat themselves without end.

 

One approach to establishing the Multi verses is from the angle of the Atomic structure.

Vishnu with Multi Verse.jpg

Vishnu with Multi Verse.

 

Please refer my posts under Multiverses.

 

The other is to find it at the Macro level.

 

The description of the Universe in the Hindu Puranas are quite detailed and they explain that there are many worlds with beings, that they intermingled, fought with each other.

 

Please refer my post Aliens in Ramayana, Mahabharata,Hinduism.

 

The description of the Constellations and their shifting movements  as explained in the Hindu system is validated by modern Astronomy.

 

Our Pole Star shifts and so all the other stars with respect to our Sun.

 

The Universe contains billions of Stars and they their Planetary Systems.

 

Just as our Stars shift position in relation to our Sun, the billion Stars of the Universe shift.

 

The term Adhitya refers to Sun in Hinduism.

 

There are twelve Adhityas and Vishnu one among them.

 

He , as I explained in my post ‘Vishnu once in 6480 years, Astronomy Precession  Equinox,’ emerges once in 6480 years with the changing Great Year, Yuga.

 

The Devi Mahatmiya describes that the Devi takes the Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra around the Universe and shows them numerous Brahmas, Visnus and Shivas at work, before reaching Chintamani Gruha of the Devi.

 

Please read my post on Chintamani Gruha.

 

Now these countless Suns, having their own planets follow their own Laws, some  physical laws are the same as ours,

 

People existing there travel among them, including the Earth.

 

As the Physical laws there are different so is the definition of Life.

 

The composition of Life there may be different from ours, they mayor need not have the basis Hydrogen,helium or Carbon as the building block of Life.

 

May be they might not need Amino Acids.

 

I am providing an excerpt.

 

The idea of a physical multiverse came later to physics than it did to religion and philosophy. The Hindu religion has ancient concepts that are similar. The term itself was, apparently, first applied by a psychologist, rather than a physicist.

Concepts of a multiverse are evident in the cyclical infinite worlds of ancient Hindu cosmology. In this viewpoint, our world is one of an infinite number of distinct worlds, each governed by its own gods on their own cycles of creation and destruction.

The word multiverse was originated by American psychologist William James in 1895 (the word “moral” is excluded from some citations of this passage):

“Visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a [moral] multiverse, as one might call it, and not a [moral] universe.”

The phrase rose in prominence throughout the 20th century, when it was used regularly in science fiction and fantasy, notably in the work of author Michael Moorcock (though some sources attribute the word to the earlier work of author and philosopher John Cowper Powys in the 1950s). It is now a common phrase within these genres.

According to MIT cosmologist Max Tegmark, there are four levels of parallel universes:

  • Level 1: An infinite universe that, by the laws of probability, must contain another copy of Earth somewhere

  • Level 2: Other distant regions of space with different physical parameters, but the same basic laws

  • Level 3: Other universes where each possibility that can exist does exist, as described by the many worlds interpretation (MWI) of quantum physics

  • Level 4: Entirely distinct universes that may not even be connected to ours in any meaningful way and very likely have entirely different fundamental physical laws

Tegmark’s approach is one of the few attempts to comprehensively categorize the concepts of parallel universes in a scientific (or, as some see it, pseudoscientific) context. The full text of Tegmark’s 2003 paper on this topic is available at his MIT website, for those who don’t believe that these concepts are scientific. (They may not be scientific, but at least they’re unscientific musings by a scientist.)

 

Citation.

 

http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/string-theory-parallel-universes-and-the-multivers.html

Vishnu Once in 6480 Years Astronomy Precession Equinoxes

In Astrophysics, Hinduism on November 18, 2014 at 09:25

Hinduism and Indian Philosophy have Scared Texts and legends.

 

The texts are both allegorical and facts.

 

For instance, the description of Patala refers to the physical location of a place inside/underneath the earth, it also denotes a stage of mental degradation.

Pole Star ,Dhruva Nakshatra.Precssion of Equinoxes.jpg

Pole Star ,Dhruva Nakshatra.Precssion of Equinoxes.

 

Similarly the Saptha Rishi Mandal, or the Great Bear Constellation is a fact and it also refers to the Rishis of yore.

 

The Pole Star is Dhruva. the Loka granted by Vishnu to the Child Dhruva.

 

The astronomical events are cloaked in legends and Puranas.

Sishumara of the Sun with the positions of the Stars that change.jpg.

Sishumara of the Sun with the positions of the Stars that change.

 

What is unique is that they are real and also allegorical in describing celestial events.

 

Let us look into some of these.

 

The Post of Indra, the chief of Devas and Dhruva is ex officio.

 

Indra changes in every Yuga, that is the Post of Indra is constant while the person who occupies the place changes.

 

It is said that who does certain Yagas like the Aswamedha Yagas successfully becomes an Indra, dethroning the present incumbent.

 

Severe penance also warrants these results.

 

So Indra disturbs those who engage in these activities.

 

Now coming to Astronomy.

 

Time takes a toll on everything in the Universe.

 

If affects people and non living things.

 

People age so  also the Rocks etc.

 

There are two aspects of Time, one is so minute that you do not notice it and the changes effected by it, like Micro seconds, nano seconds and seconds,minutes.

 

Even changes that occur hourly can be known only with the help of special instruments.

 

The other aspect of Time is it is so huge to be comprehended, like a light year or AU, Astronomical Unit that is equal to the distance traveled by Light in a Year.

 

One can not see this as this is a huge number and one may not be alive to see the change by oneself.

 

Such huge numbers are involved in the Universe in respect of formation of Stars,Galaxies .

 

Now all of us know the Earth has two movements, one spinning on its own Axis and another moving around the Sun.

 

The movement around the Sun’s signs by the earth is so slow that it is not noticeable.

 

Also because of the movement of the Earth and the Stars and other Celestial objects these objects change their  relative places.

 

To put it simply, Stars change positions as also the Earth, taking the Sun as a reference point.

 

That the Sun also moves and there are many Suns is a different issue and I shall be posting on the implications.

 

This movement of the Earth in the Zodiacal Signs of the Sun is called the Precession of the Equinoxes.

 

Put it simply the Stars change places over a period of Time(long time)

 

The Pole Star, the Dhruva Nakshatra is taken as a reference in Hinduism and it changes its place once in approximately 26000 years.

 

This corresponds to one basic Yuga, the Kali Yuga.

 

According to Vishnu Purana Dhruva changes  every Yuga like Indra, Saptha Rishis(Great Bear Constellation), along with the others in the Universe .

 

And the ten Avatars of Vishnu represent these Celestial changes.

 

“THE PRECESSION OF THE EQUINOXES is what determines the movement of the Ages backwards through the constellations. It can be understood through the analogy of the Earth spinning like a top, with the Sun and Moon pulling on its equatorial bulge. This gravitational influence creates a wobble, resulting in the precession or the shifting of the equinoctial points with respect to the stars. The north celestial pole describes a small circle with a radius of 23.5 degrees around the north ecliptic pole, with a consequent westward drift of the equinoxes – the two points where the celestial equator crosses the ecliptic. This is not to be confused with the movement of the Earth respective to the ecliptic of the Sun that occurs every year around March 21st, a movement that ever recurs on that date. What is here spoken of is the greater circle upon which the “ayanamsha” or ‘ascendant of the Earth’ is traced, and which coincides with the annual equinoctial point every 25,920 years. Set against the backdrop of the Zodiac, it takes the Earth 25, 920 years to make a “Complete Round” of the 12 astrological signs and 2,160 years to complete one astrological Age….

 

The Precessional Cycle was described by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus, in the Second century BC. but it seems to have been known in the ancient Vedic culture as well. In past millennia, astrologer priests known as Rishis developed precise formulas for calculating the cosmic cycles, and wove their celestial equations into the fabric of their myths and legends. Principal among these cosmological parables was the “Line of Ten Avatars”. According to tradition, Vishnu, one of the principle deities of the Hindu trinity takes birth at particular points in the cosmic cycle which correspond to the earth’s passage through the ‘Fixed’ zodiacal ages. Vishnu appears every 6,480 years at the commencement of the signs of Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius. He appears at the behest of a suffering world and comes to destroy evil and injustice and reestablish the eternal truths of the Sanatana Dharma. The Bhagavad Gita, one of India’s most sacred scriptures, reveals something of this cosmic process in Krishna’s dialogue with Arjuna. Krishna tells his disciple:

‘Whenever the world declineth in virtue and righteousness; and vice and injustice mount the throne, then cometh I, the Lord and revisit my world in visible form, and mingleth as a man with men, and by my influence and teachings do I destroy the evil and injustice and reestablish virtue and righteousness. Many times have I thus appeared, and many times hereafter shall I come again.’…

Citation.

http://www.aeongroup.com/precesn.htm

http://decodehindumythology.blogspot.in/search/label/Black%20Holes%20and%20Bhagavatam ( Image Credit)

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