ramanan50

Reflexine, Emphotic Pronouns English Grammar

In Language on June 27, 2013 at 19:15

 

MARK THE PRONOUNS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES AND STATE WHAT IT STANDS FOR

 

1.    Lord Rama broke the Bow and he married Sita.

2.    The Eastern Puranas are the Reservoir of Indian culture and they are the                      binding force of the country.

3.    I wish I had not come to the battlefield said Arjuna to Lord Krishna.

4.   Thirukkuran was written by Thiruvalluvar and it is a repository of wisdom.

5.   Jesus said, Thou shall not kill.

  1. Has Shankar not come?  It is time he is disciplined said the teacher to Raja.

7.   This is beyond everybody, but me.

8.   Either the Governor should have taken direct action or sent in his report to the centre.

9.    While the centre has the final say in respect of Central list, it has no jurisdiction over State list.

10. Neither the Politician nor the beauracates are doing their duty.

11.  Each and Every one of us showed set high moral standards in whatever he / she does.

12.  Cleopatra on the Asp (a small snake):  Does not the man see the baby that                          such the Nurse asleep?

13.  Every action has its equivalent and opposite reaction.

14.   It is the commitment and passion that matters in achieving success in any field.

15.   Either you speak or let him speak.

16.   Train a child on a mankind would and it would become a disciplined Adult.

17.   People of lovable nature, whenever they perform an action, it would be for the benefit of us.

18.   Tenth often appears to be self-contradictory but unfortunately it is the way it is.

19.   Sekkizar compiled Periya Puranam and he hailed as a Nayanmar as well.

 

Write the correct form of Pronoun.

 

1.    We scored as many sixers in Twenty Twenty as …………… (they / their).

2.    In the PTA meeting …………… and my father were present.  (me / I).

3.    It was …… who tipped you ( I, me).

4.   Rama is as old as ….. ( I , me).

5.    It is not for …………………… to dictate terms to us ( they , them).

6.    Between you and ….. the whole proposal is nonsense ( I , me).

7.   Let ……. who can answer this question (He, Him).

8.   You know the facts as well as …………… ( I, me).

9.    We are not so poor as ……….. (they, them).

10. Wait for Subash and ………… ( I, me).

 

REFLEXINE  AND EMPHOTIC PRONOUNS

 

Let us imagine that you have hurt yourself while using a knife.  How do you say it?

 

I have hurt myself while using the knife.

 

The action of hurting has been done on by you.  That is the action refers to the one being done on one’s self.  In other words, ‘myself’ is the object of the verb in the above sentence.

 

I have hurt myself  –    I is the subject, Have hurt is the verb, myself is the object

Therefore, Reflexine Pronoun are those process that are used as the object of the verb.  The object in this case, myself refers to the same subject (I) as that of the object (myself).

 

This is applicable to second and third persons as well (for both Singular and Plural).

 

Plural

 

I have hurt myself                               –           We have hurt ourselves

You have hurt yourself                       –           You have hurt yourselves

He / She hurt himself / herself            –           They hurt themselves

The horse hurt itself                            –           They hurt themselves

 

We add  ‘Self’ to the words (my, your, him, it).

 

This is also called Compound Personal Pronouns.

 

-           Sometimes we use ‘Self’ as Nouns.

He thinks too much of self.

 

-           Sometimes we use ‘Self’ to emphasis

I will correct it myself

 

The accused themselves admitted their guilt.

 

When we use self for emphasis, then Compound Personal Pronouns (self, selves) are called Emphasis Pronouns.  (Singular – self; Plural  – selves).

 

We have to sometimes point out the objects.  These Pronouns are called Demonstrative Pronouns.

 

That is the Tanjore Temple.

 

His views are the same as those of his father.

 

I have scolded him to correct him and such was my intension.

 

Some words are adjectives (demonstrative), when they are used with Nouns.

 

They are ‘This’ and ‘That’.

 

This watch is mine.  The word watch is the subject.

 

‘THE’ adds more meaning by pointing out the particular subject (watch)(.  The adjective ‘THIS’ demonstrates or states clearly of the subject.

 

Hence, “THIS’ is demonstrating that the watch is specifically pointed out. ’THIS’ therefore, is an adjective and it demonstrates.  So, it is called ‘DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE’.

 

You may also see that ‘THIS’ means not the thing we speak of  very near or close to us.

 

When we say ‘ What is that Noise’?

 

We know that the noise is taking place slightly away from us.  We should use ‘THIS’ when we refer to things that happen near us and ‘THAT’ when they occur slightly away from us.

 

‘THIS’ is Singular and the Plural is ‘THESE’.

 

‘THAT’ is Singular and the Plural is ‘THOSE’.

 

When we want to say something about something near us and something away from us in the same sentence we can us ‘THIS’ and ‘THAT’ as follows:

 

‘THIS’ shirt is better than ‘THAT’.  (Here this also shows your preference).

 

We can use ‘THAT’ with ‘THOSE’ (Plural of ‘THAT’) in a sentence to avoid repetition of the preceding (the nouns just before) Noun as in:

 

The habits of Dravidians are similar to those of the Red Indians.

 

We use both ‘THIS’ and ‘THAT’ while referring to things we have mentioned already.

 

Kindness and cruelty are both Natural, while ‘THIS’ leads destruction ‘THAT’  leads to  happiness.

 

Here, ‘THIS’ refers to ‘cruelty’ (which appears last) i.e. after kindness.  ‘THAT’ a refers to ‘Kindness’ and it appears first.  So, ‘THIS’ in these kinds of statements will refer to what is said last. ‘THAT’ will refer to what is said first.

 

Many times we are vague in statements. (may be we are doing it deliberately or as a matter of fact), even when we point out.

 

One does not know how to correct him.

Many in the Defense forces are Gurkhas.

They say limited Alcohol is good for heart.

 

In Government, everybody’s responsibility is nobody’s responsibility.

 

(Some words that can be used as one, none, they, some, few, many, other, others).

 

These nouns are used in general or in an indefinite way.  they are called Indefinite Pronouns.

 

Some of these words may be used as adjectives.

 

I will own Rupees one core one day.

Krishna is a man of few words.

 

-   When we use ‘Anybody, Everybody, Everyone, Each one, anyone, we should use either he / she as the content requires.

 

Father guides any one of his sons in his career.

 

But, in modern usage we use Plural.

 

Father guides every one of his sons, in their studies.

 

Some words – Either, Neither points our person / thing one at a time.  They are distributed among the group indicated.  These types of words are called Distributive Pronouns.

 

As they point out a particular Person / Thing, it is always in Singular.  Therefore, the verb showed always be in Singular.

 

Each of the boys stand up.

Either of these Religions lead to God.

Neither of y our parents turned up for the function.

 

Each points out to everyone / thing.

 

Either means one or the other.  (There is ………….)

Neither means not this or not that or not anything.  It is negative.  It is the opposite of (ANTONYM/ of Either).  Either and Neither should be used.

 

When speaking of two persons or things, any, no one, neither, none is to be used when we speak of more than two things.

 

POSITION OF EACH

 

Each has these positions in a sentence.

 

1.         Each of the students received a prize.

2.         These students received each a reward.

3.         These DVDs cost Rs.150/- each.

 

When Each, Either or Neither is used as adjective, it is followed by a Singular Noun

 

Each player should play well.

 

Each and one belong to the subject

 

Other and another belong to object.

 

In practice, they are called Compound Pronouns or Reciprocal Pronouns.  They are, in correct usage not even separated even by a preposition.

 

Make Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns in the following sentences:

 

1.         They enjoyed themselves.

2.         He could not bring himself to terms with his loss.

3.         Lord Krishna was the incarnation of Lord Vishnu himself.

4.         Some people are fond of talking about themselves.

5.         Don’t hurt your self.

6.         I myself can work for him.

7.         Those who worry others worry themselves in the long run.

8.         I blame myself for my failure.

9.         Love of oneself is an impediment to spiritual growth.

10.       Some often deceive themselves.

 

The friends quarreled with each other.  They gave evidence against one another.

 

Normal rule is that we should use each one when we speak of two persons or things and one another when we speak of more than two persons or things.

 

However, in modern usage, we use ‘EACH OTHER’, even while we speak of more than two Persons / things as in ‘The three friends quarreled with each other’.

 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

 

There are some words which stand for Nouns (Pronouns).  They also do the work of a Conjunction.  (It is called Conjunctive Pronoun).

 

We also call them ‘Relative Pronouns’.  This word also relates or refers or is connected to the noun that appears before ‘h’.

 

The words under this heading are ‘Who, Which and What’.

 

Ex:       I saw Ram.  He was going home.

 

When we join these two sentences it  becomes

 

I saw Ram who was going home.

 

Here, who stands for Ram (Noun). Therefore, who is a Pronoun ‘WHO’ also joins the two sentences.  Therefore, it is also a conjunction. The word ‘WHO’ also refers to ‘RAM’ which occurs before it.  So, ‘WHO’ is a conjunctive or Relative Pronoun.  The Noun (Ram) which appears just before ‘WHO’ (Relative Pronoun) is called Antecedent (Antecedent means before).

 

What are the forms of Relative Pronouns?

 

As Relative Pronouns stand in for Noun, some of the rules of Nouns are also applicable to them.  i,e. cases:

 

WHO              Singular & Plural

 

Nominative                 Who

 

Relative                       Whose

 

Accusative                  Whom /  ……….

 

-           This is the student who secures first rank.

-           This is the girl whose handwriting is excellent.

-           This is the girl who / whom all praise.

-           These are the students who work hard.

-           These are the students whose handwriting is good.

-           These are the students whom / who we all praise.

 

The forms are the same for Masculine, Feminine, Singular and Plural.

 

-           ‘WHO’ is used for persons only.

 

We say   ‘I saw Ram who was going home’.

 

But, we do not say ‘I saw a book who was lying on the table’.

 

‘He succeeds who works hard.

 

Sometimes, we use ‘WHO’ for referring to animals as in :

 

This is the horse who came to us from our friend.

 

The Possessive Noun of who i.e. ‘WHOSE’ is also used for animals and things.

 

This is the horse whose record in DERBY (Racing Event) is excellent.

 

This is the problem whose solution has been evading me.

 

‘WHOSE’ can be used in Singular and Plural.

 

-           The Relative Pronoun, which has the same form for Nominative and                                               Accusative cases.

 

This is the property that belongs to my uncle.

 

This house which is in heart of the city is very costly.

 

-           ‘WHICH’  – has no genitive case.  We use ‘WHOSE’ in its place.

 

-           The effects of the earth quake which shock waves traveled from afar was               devastating.

 

Note that the language employed in this book will gradually become less simple and the exercises will be tough to grade.  This is done deliberately to ensure that your communication skills improve.  As has been said earlier, it is essential that you read more and refer to Dictionary when you do not understand a word.  This is the only way you can improve your communication skills.  There are no short cuts.

 

-           Which is used for thing without life or animals.  It can be singular or plural.

 

-                      The momentum of  ……………. which is lost is difficult to regain.

 

-           Which is used for thing without life or animals.  It can be singular or plural.

 

-           The momentum of  ……………. which is lost is difficult to regain.

 

-           The books which are glamorous looking are those that are normally without substance.

 

We may also use ‘WHICH’ to refer to sentences or thoughts.

 

-           He said that he saw the murder which was untrue.

 

Many of our thoughts, which are of impulsive Nature, may lead to ruin.

 

THAT

 

Has the same form in Singular and Plural.  It has Nominative and Accusative case.  It has no genitive case.

 

He that is humble, shall conquer the world.

 

They that touch the Midas shall become Gold.

 

Take everything that you like.

 

THAT refers to persons or things.

 

That is how I spoke of.

 

That is the building when I lived in my childhood.

 

That can also be used as an adverbial accusative (we shall discuss in details later).

 

I recall the day that he visited.

 

It is equivalent of        – on which, in which, at which.

 

In some cases, ‘THAT’ cannot be used in place of who or which.

 

My son, who is five years old, is very mischievous.

 

We should not say  – My son that is five years old, is very mischievous.

 

For more on English Grammar check under’ Language’

 

http://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2012/09/10/personal-pronouns/

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